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All who love liberty and value Protestantism venerate the 
character of John Knox; no British Eeformer is more 
entitled to the designation of illustrious. By three centuries 
he anticipated that parochial system of education which has 
lately become the law of England ; by nearly half that period 
he set forth those principles of civil and religious liberty 
which culminated in a system of constitutional government. 
To him Englishmen are indebted for the Protestant character 
of their "Book of Common Prayer;" Scotsmen for a Eeforma- 
tion so thorough as permanently to resist the encroachments 
of an ever aggressive sacerdotalism. 

Knox belonged to a House ancient and respectable ; but 
those bearing his name derive their chiefest lustre from being 
connected with a race of which he was a member. The 
family annals presented in these pages reveal not a few of 
the members exhibiting vast intellectual capacity and moral 

What follows is the result of wide research and a very 
extensive correspondence. So many have helped that a 
catalogue of them would be cumbrous. But special acknow- 


ledgments are due to the Eev. Dr Gordon of Newbattle, Mr 
David Semple of Paisley, and Mr David A. Hume of London, 
who have carefully gleaned original materials. Colonel 
Dewar of YogTie is entitled to best thanks for so readily 
granting the use of the Lochquareit wiits. In collecting 
materials from the public records Mr Walter Macleod has 
evinced his usual skill and diligence, which entitle him 
to the warm commendation of all who have recourse to his 
professional services. 

Grampian LodgEj 

Forest Hill, S.E., 

December 1878. 


The family name of Knox has a territorial origin, being 
derived from the Celtic word Cnoc, signifying a small hill. 

About the year 1260, "Johanne de Cnok" is named as 
witness in a charter of the lands of Ingliston, Eenfrewshire.^ 
On the 9th June 1272, he witnessed a gift which Sir Anthony 
the Lombard made to the abbot and convent of Paisley, of 
his risht in the lands of Fulton.^ " Wilelmus de Ejioc " is 
witness to a charter without date, but apparently about 1284, 
by Johannes de Aldhus,^ of his right in a certain portion of 
land; to which were appended the seals of "Johannis de 
Knoc " and others, as that of Johannis de Aldhus was not well 
known (" quia sigillum meum non est 7iotorm77i"). In 1328 
two payments from the exchequer of King Eobert the Bruce 
were made to Alanus del Knoc, or Knockis, and in 1330 he 
is named in the public accounts as Alanus de Knokis, on 
receiving 44s. lOd. for conveying the royal stud to the forest 
of Selkirk, from the north ("de partibus vltramontanis ").* 
During the reign of Eobert III. (1390-1406), Eobert Knock 
received a royal charter confirming to him the lands of 

1 Keg. Mon. de Passelet, Edin. 1882, p. 58. ^ /j^-^,^ p, 51, 3 jj^-^^ p ^5 
** Great Chamberlain's AccouDts, Edin. 1817, 4to, vol. i., pp. 22, 25, 209. 



Knock, within the liberty of Eenfrew, on the resignation of 
William Cunyngame, son of the sheriff of Ayr.^ 

In an instrument of sasine, dated 8th July 1472, investing 
Alexander Dunbar of Westfield in certain lands at Peterhead, 
" Andrea Knox de eodem " is named as a witness.^ In the 
Treasurer's Accounts is named, in 1491 and subsequent years, 
" Jok of Knoxe," one of the falconers of James IV.^ In 
February 1498 a contract was entered into between John 
Chaumer of Auchcowy and David Knox of Auchorthty in the 
parish of Strichen, for the marriage of the son and heir- 
apparent of the latter with one of the daughters of the 
former.* "Johannes Knokis de eodem" is, in February 
1507, one of a jury which served Agnes Leslie, one of the 
heirs of Henry Leslie, her father, in lands situated in the 
parish of Oyne, Aberdeenshire.^ " Jhon Knox of that Ilk " 
obtained, on the 31st May 1538, judgment from the Lords of 
Session against George Craufurd of Federat, for not fulfilling 
the conditions of a " decret-arbitrale ; " Ke is also named in 
a decreet of the Lords of Session against the Earl of Murray, 
sheriff-principal of Aberdeen, dated 21st March 1538-9.^ 
Among thirty-three landed persons who, in January 1549, 
constituted an assize in the county of Aberdeen for levying 
a tax, is named "Gilbert Knox of that Ilk."^ The estate 
from which Gilbert Knox and his predecessors derived their 
designation is situated in the parish of Deer, about ten 

^ Robertson's Index of Charters, 137, 14. 

^ From the original in Scrabster charter-chest, quoted in "Antiquities of 
Shires of Aberdeen and Banff," Spalding Club, 1862, vol. iv., p, 592. 

3 Lord High Treasurer's Accounts, Edin. 1877, vol. i., pp. 177, 284, 329, 
362, 367, 373. 

* Antiquities of Shires of Aberdeen and Banff, iv. 65. 

5 Ibid., vol. iii., p. 450. « Ibid., vol. iv., pp. 576, 232. 

' Ibid., vol. i., p. 115. 


miles to the west ^of Peterhead. In the parish of Deer 
stood the well-known Cistercian abbey, founded in 1219 by- 
William Cumyn, first Earl of Buchan, and which being 
suppressed at the Eeformation, the greater tithes were by its 
commendator assigned to William, fourth Earl Marischal, 
who, in November 1574, summoned before the sheriff those 
formerly bound to pay tithes to the abbey. Among these 
was "Androw Knox of that Ilk," who was adjudged to pay 
"five bollis, tua firlottis, tua pekis of the teynd-schaves of 
the Knoikailhous." ^ The abbey was, on the 29th July 1587, 
erected into a temporal lordship in favour of Eobert Keith, 
second son of the Earl Marischal, who was created Baron 
Altrie. Among those who subscribed as witnesses the legal 
instrument by which, on the 7th July 1587, the commendator 
resigned into the king's hands the possession of the abbey for 
erection into a temporal lordship, were William Knox and 
George Knox,^ not otherwise designed. In a valuation 
of Deer parish, made towards the close of the seventeenth 
century, John Knox of that Ilk is named; he disposed of 
his lands to Keith of Whiteriggs, a cadet of the Earl 
Marischal. In the poll-book of Aberdeen a John Knox 
appears in 1696, living in the vicinity of the lands of Knock ; 
he is there designated as "grassman" at the "Maynes of 
Knock," in the parish of Deer, and is assessed at six shil- 

Eeturning to the Eenfrewshire family, Mr George Crawfurd* 
in his history of that house derives its origin from Adam, 
son of Uchtred, who, in the reign of Alexander II., received 

1 Antiquities of Shires of Aberdeen and Banff, voL ii., p. 432. 

2 Ihid., voL ii., p. 439. 

3 List of PoUable Persons within the Shire of Aberdeen, 1696, vol. i., p. 634. 
* Crawfmd's Genealogical MSS., Advocates Library. 


from Walter, son of Alan, Steward of Scotland, the lands 
of Knock, in the barony of Eenfrew. "The family," he 
adds, " got also from the Great Stewart the lands of Eanfurlie 
and Grieff Castle in feu and heretage. The son of Adam, 
son of Uchthred, was Johannes de Knox, in the reign of 
King Alexander III." ^ 

According to the chartulary of Paisley, Johannes Knok 
de eodem witnessed, in August 1466, a legal instrument 
between Henry, Abbot of Paisley, and John Lamond.^ 

In his genealogical narrative, Mr Crawfurd continues : 
" The first wTiting or voucher of the family of Eanfurlie that 
is extant, at least that I have seen, is a charter by King 
James II. Uchtredo Knox de Eanfurlie terrarum de Eanfurlie, 
and the whole estate of the family tenendis de Domino 
Senescallo Scotie. It proceeds upon his own resignation, 
which shows clearly that the lands were his own before, and 
in this case implies they had long before pertained to his 
predecessors. The designer was sometimes designed of Ean- 
furlie, and sometimes of Knock." ^ " There is," adds Mr 
Crawfurd, "in the public archives, a charter granted by 
James III. about the year 1474, Uchtredo Knox de Craig- 
ends de terris de Eanfurlie et Grief Castle on his father's 
resignation, on which he had the investiture under the great 
seal, to be held of the Prince and Stewart of Scotland, as 
baron of the barony of Eenfrew." * 

Among other arbiters to determine the boundary of lands 

^ Crawfurd states that he had seen the family charters in the keeping of 
the Earl of Dundonald. 

« Reg. Mon. de Passelet, Edin. 1832, p. 151. 

' Ihid., pp. 406, 407. 

* Mr Crawfurd quotes from the original charter in the possession of Colin 
Campbell of Blythswood, proprietor of the lands of Knox. 


belonging to the convent of Paisley and tlie corporation of 
the burgh, were appointed, on the 14th February 1489, 
Uchtrede Knok of Craigyns (Craigends), and Johne of Knok 
of that Ilk ; they issued their decree eleven days afterwards. 

In the accounts of the Lord High Treasurer, under 18th 
July 1498, is the following entry : " Eesauit fra Ouchtred 
Knox of the Craggans, in part of payment of Thomas Cal- 
brathis remissioune, and his brothr and Andro Wawaris, 
fifty lib." 1 

Eespecting Uchter Knox, one of the arbiters of 1489, Mr 
Crawfurd adds : " His lady is Agnes Lyle ; the presumption is 
that she was Lord Lyle's daughter, because there was no other 
family of that name, and they resided just in the neighbourhood 
at the castle of Duchall,^ not above two or three miles dis- 
tant. He left two sons, Uchter, his successor, and George 
Knox, a younger son, to whom his father gave in patrimony 
the half of the lands of Knoc or Knox; and to Janet 
Fleeming, his spouse, a daughter of the antient family of 
Barrochan, in the shire of Eenfrew, anno 1503. The charter 
provides the estate disponed to them and their heirs simply." 

To the notarial instrument on the institution by Mr 
Patrick Coventre of Andrew, Abbot of Cambuskenneth, and 
Sir John Rannaldson, canon of that abbey, in the rectory of 
the church of Kippen (Kyppane), Stirlingshire, dated 21st 
July 1510, the second of the seven witnesses is "Johannes 
Knoc de Ardmanwell." ^ John Knox of Ardmanwell was 
probably son and heir of George Knox, portioner of the 

^ Lord High Treasurer's Accounts, vol. i., p. 317. 

2 Sir Robert Lyle of Duchal was created Lord Lyle by James IL about 
1446. His ancestors were landowners in Renfrewshire. 

* Reg. Monast. S. Marie de Cambuskenneth, 1147'1535, Printed for the 
Grampian Club, Edin. 1872, 4to, pp. 167, 168. 


lands of Knox. He resided at Kippen, wliere he died in 
October 1536. In his will, in which he is styled "Lord of 
Ardmanwell," he provides that his body should 'be deposited 
in the church of Kilbarchan, the family burial-place. He 
names as his executors Sir Eobert Macaulay and Eobert 
SempeU, while the witnesses to the will are Peter Knox and 
Eobert Fleming.^ 

In the " Protocol Eegister of the Diocese of Glasgow," 
under the year 1510, appear various instruments relative to 
a contention between Sir John Kitchin, chaplain, and John 
Knox, on behalf of his son Uchtred. Uchtred Knox had 
seriously attacked and wounded Kitchin, who seems to have 
held office as preceptor, in Semple College, Eenfrewshire, 
and it was arranged in the archbishop's palace at Glasgow, 
that both parties should submit to the award of arbiters in 
the cathedral or metropolitan church. There were delays 
and protests, but at length it was decided that Kitchin should 
not be molested by Knox, father and son, in the enjoyment 
of his office, and that they should compensate him for bodily 
injury. One of the judges. Sir Peter Houston, decreed that 
Uchtred should give Sir John twenty merks, and afterwards 
when he came to better fortune other twenty merks, and 
when he succeeded to his father's estate twenty merks 

Uchter Knox, portioner of Eanfurlie, married Janet, 
daughter to the Lord Semple. By this lady he had two sons, 
Uchter, his successor, and William, progenitor of the House 
of Silvieland; also two daughters, Hewissa, who married 

^ Dunblane Cora. Reg., "Testaments." Fleming was a member of the 
Barochan family. 

' Liber Protocollomm M. Cutliberti Simonis, 1499-1513, Grampian Club, 
1875, vol. ii., pp. 325, 329, 341, 349-351. 


John Biintine of Ardoch, Dumbartonsliire, and Janet, who 
married, first, Alexander, son of William Cuninghame of 
Craigend, and second, John Porter field of that Ilk.^ 

Uchter Knox, portioner of Eanfurlie, died at Kippen on 
the 30th July 1553. His inventory includes four cows, 
thirty hogs, and a quantity of victual. The executors to 
his will are "Janet Sempill, his spouse, Janet Knox, his 
younger daughter, and William Fleming of Barrochan ; " 
while among the witnesses are named "John Knox [por- 
tioner] of Eanfurlie, and William Buntine of Ardoch."^ 

Uchter Knox, next of Eanfurlie, married a daughter of 
Cuningham of Craigends, by whom he had Uchter, who suc- 
ceeded him, and Andrew.^ 

Andrew Knox, second son of John Knox of Eanfurlie, 
and granduncle of Uchter, the last laird of this family, studied 
at the University of Glasgow, where he graduated A.M. in 
1579. Having obtained license as a probationer, he was, in 
1581, ordained minister of Lochwinnoch, Ayrshire. From 
this charge he was in or about 1585 translated to the abbey- 
church of Paisley. In 1592 he, at the head of a party, attacked 
and discomfited a body of armed persons who, in the service 
of Spain, had landed at Ailsa Craig, in the hope of re-estab- 
lishing in Scotland the Eoman faith.* On the 16th December 
1597, an Act was passed by the Estates of Parliament, whereby 
he and others were declared to have done " loyell and gud 
seruice to his Majestic and his cuntrey " by the "proceedings 
aganis vmql. Hew Barclay of Ladyland, conform to the com- 
mission granted to that effect." ^ 

In 1594 Mr Andrew Knox built a house in Paisley; it is 

1 Crawfurd's Genealogy. ^ Dunblane Com, Reg., vol. ii. ^ Ibid, 

4 Fasti Eccl. Scot., ii. 194, 224. ^ ^cta Pari. Scot., iv. 148. 


now 25 High Street, and in an oak panel over the chimney 
of the principal room are engraved his initials with those of 
his wife. In the gable of this house, which he owned jointly 
with John IVIaxweU of Stanelie, having placed a window, 
Maxwell objected, and in 1595 applied to the magistrates to 
have the window shut up. To this effect an order was 
procured, which, strongly resented by Mr Knox, led his 
parishioner to abandon his ministry. Holding himself 
aggrieved, Mr Knox, on the 16th September 1602, complained 
of Maxwell to the presbytery. At the next meeting, held on 
the 14th October, Maxwell explained to the court that he 
had not left the parish church from any disrespect, but be- 
cause of the " deadly feud " subsisting between him and the 
incumbent. He expressed penitence and promised to attend 
the parish church of Eenfrew, with which the brethren were 

Mr Knox had excited the animosity of another parishioner, 
George Ste^wart, a solicitor, whom in the burgh court he 
caused to find security not to molest him. The security was 
arranged on the 1st October 1604, but on the parties meeting 
immediately thereafter, Mr Knox, in presence of the magis- 
trates and town council, struck his adversary on the head 
with a key to the effusion of his blood. The outrage was 
reported to the presbytery, who on the 4th October received 
Mr Knox's acknowledgment of his error, and decreed his sus- 
pension. The presbytery further gave order that Mr Knox 
" sail sit in the maist patent place of the kirk of Paisley, vpone 
Sunday the 19tli inst., and that after Mr John Hay (minister 
of Renfrew) has delaitit the fault to the people, the said Mr 
Andrew, in all humiliation, sal confes his offence to God, his 

^ MS. Records of tlie Presbytery of Paisley. 


brethren, and tlie pairtie offendit, and sail sit doun vpoun his 
knees, and ask God mercie for the same. This being done, 
the bailies and sum of the honest men of the paroch sail 
receive him be the hand." i 

Nominated on the 2d April 1606 Bishop of the Isles by 
writ of privy seal, Mr Knox was permitted by the Pres- 
bytery of Paisley to proceed to his diocese for four or five 
weeks. On the 20th February 1607, the presbytery, " lament- 
ing the desolation of the place so frequently" since his 
acceptance of the bishopric, proposed a coadjutor, but the 
parishioners would not agree to accept of a colleague, 
except " he wald altogether denude himself of the bishopric, 
and tak to the ministerie." Mr Knox preferred to demit, 
and was, on the 12th November 1607, relieved of liis charge. 
On the 15th February 1610, he was a member of the court of 
high commission, and on the 26th June 1611 was, by letters- 
patent, preferred to the bishopric of Kaplioe, in Ireland. He 
held both bishoprics till 22d September 1619, when he re- 
signed that of the Isles. To his bishopric of the Isles had 
been annexed, 11th August 1615, the Priory of Ardchattan 
and Abbey of Icolmkill ; from the latter he carried to Eaphoe 
the two principal bells. These, his successor, Bishop Lesley 
of Eaphoe, was, by royal edict, dated 14th March 1635, com- 
manded to restore. 

Bishop Andrew Knox died on the 27th March 1633,^ at about 
the age of seventy-four. He has been commended for his 
piety and zeal,^ but others have charged him with intolerance, 

^ MS. Records of the Presbytery of Paisley, 

^ Cotton's Fasti Ecclesiae Hibernicte, vol. iv., pp. 350, 351. 

^ By Mr George Crawfurd the bishop is described as **a wonderful! good 

sort of man, and of great moderation, piety, and temper " (Crawfiird's MS. 



deceit, and avarice. He married liis cousin-german, Elizabeth, 
daughter of William Knox of Silvieland,^ by whom he had 
three sons, Thomas, James, and George ; and two daughters, 
Margaret, who married John Cunningham of Cambuskeith, 
son of James, seventh Earl of Glencairn ; and another, who 
married John Hamilton of Woodhall.^ 

The bishop's three sons took orders in the Church. Thomas, 
the eldest, was educated at the University of Glasgow, where 
he graduated M.A. in 1608.^ He and his cousin, John Knox 
of Eanfurlie, were, in October 1614, retained as hostages by 
the left-handed Coll of Isla, on liis making terms with the 
bishop, subsequent to his seizure of the castle of Dunivaig.* 
From the incumbency of Sorabie, in Tiree, he was constituted 
Dean of the Isles, at the re-establishment of the diocesan 
chapter, on the 4th August 1617; in February 1619 he was 
promoted to the bishopric of the Isles, in succession to his 
father. He was in 1622 appointed non-resident rector of the 
parish of Clondevadock, in his father's diocese.^ He was 
B.D., and died in 1628, without issue, aged about forty.*^ He 
is represented as a man of learning and piety. According to 
Crawfurd, who wrote about the year 1726, the male posterity 
of Bishop Andrew Knox had become extinct. 

John Knox of Eanfurlie, son of Uchtred, who died on the 
21st March 1594, had three sons, Uchter, Eobert, and Patrick. 
Uchter, the eldest son, predeceased his father, having died 

^ MS. Notes by Mr David Semple of Paisley, Silvieland, a small estate, 
is situated on the banks of the river Gryfe, in the parish of Kilbarchan. 
According to another account, Bishop Andrew Knox married the daughter of 
John Knox, merchant in Ayr. 

' Fasti Eccl. Scot, ii. 149, 244 ; iii. 448. 

^ Mun. Univ. Glasguen., iii. 6Q. 

♦ Book of the Thanes of Cawdor, Spalding Club, 1859, pp. 231-233. 

» MS., Trinity CoUege, Dublin, E., 3, 6. 6 Fasti Eccl. Scot., iii. 448. 


in December 1589. He married Margaret, daugliter of George 
Maxwell of Newark, Eenfrewshire,^ by whom he had three 
sons, John, his heir, George, and Alexander; and three 
daughters, Susanna, Margaret, and Jane. His testament- 
dative proceeds thus : 

"The testament-dative and inventar of ye guidis, geir, 
soumes of money, and dettis perteining to vmquhile Wchreid 
Knox, zounger of Eampherlie, in ye sheriffdom e of Eenfrew, 
ye tyme of his deceis, quha deceissit in the moneth of 
December, the zeir of God Im v^ Ixxxix zeiris, faytfullie 
maid and gevin vp be Margaret Maxwell, Lady Eampherlie, 
zounger, his relict spous, in name and behalf of Sussanna, 
George, Margaret, Alex^, and Jane Knoxis, yair laufull 
bairnes by yie air [besides the heir] and executoris-datiue, 
decernit to yair said vmquhile fader, be decreit of ye com- 
missar of Edinburgh, as ye samyn decreit of ye dait at 
Edin., ye fyft day of December, ye zeir of God Im v^ Ixxx 
ten zeiris, at lent proportis." 

To the testament-dative is attached an inventory of the 
movable estate belonging to the deceased, consisting chiefly 
of farm-stocking, which is valued at £653, 10s. Patrick Knox, 
his brother, is named, also Thomas Knox of Silvieland, who 
each received an annual rent of ten merks from the estate.^ 

The testament-dative of John Knox of Eanfurlie, who 
died 21st March 1594, was "gevin vp be Eobert Knox for 
himself and in name and behalf of Patrick Knox, his broder, 
laufull bairnes to ye said vmquhile Johne Knox, yair fader, 
and executors-dative decernit to him be decreit of Eob*- 
Blair, commissar-deput of Lowthiane, as ye samen decreit of 
ye daitt ye six day of May, ye zeir of God Im v*^ Ixxxxv 
zeires, mair at lenth beiris." 

1 Crawfurd's MS. Genealogy. ^ Edin. Com. Reg., vol xxii. 


The inventory consists of victual and sums of money, 
together estimated at £568, 4s. lld.^ 

John Knox, eldest son of Uchtred Knox and Margaret 
Maxwell, and grandson of John Knox of Eanfurlie, suc- 
ceeded his grandfather in 1594 He seems to have been 
involved in some conflict in which his paternal uncle was 
deprived of life, for on the 2d August 1604, the Presbytery 
of Paisley passed the following minute : 

"The qlk day the bretheren being informit of the filthie 
fact of murther committed be the Laird of Eanfurlie in slay- 
ing of his father's brother : therefore the bretheren directed 
Mr Daniel Cunningham and Mr Patrick Hamilton, commis- 
sioners, to deale and confer with the said Laird of Eanfurlie, 
quhethir if they find any signs of treu repentence in him for 
the said slander, and to report the same to the presbytery." 

The result of the inquiry is unrecorded. But being, on 
the 17th July 1606, charged by the presbytery with forsaking 
the Holy Communion, he pleaded as to his cause of absence 
" the sclander he lay under for the slaughter of his father's 
brother, quhilk was not as yet removed, but which he hoped 
would be shortly." ^ 

The next successor of the line of Eanfurlie was Uchter 
Knox, who married Elizabeth, daughter of John Blair of 
that Ilk, and by her had a son, Uchter, and a daughter, 
Isobel. The latter married Eobert Muir of Caldwell, " one of 
the most ancient barons in the county of Eenfrew." ^ 

Uchter Knox of Eanfurlie married Jean, daughter of Sir 
William Mure of Eowallan, by whom he had a daughter, 
Helen, who married John Cunningham of Caddell, Ayrshire. 

^ Edin. Com. Reg., vol. xxviii. 

' MS. Records of Presbytery of Paisley. ' Crawfurd's MS. Genealogy. 


In 1665 Uchter Knox sold the estate of Eanfurlie to Lord 
Cochrane, afterwards Earl of Dundonald.^ On the death of 
Uchter Knox of Eanfurlie without heir-male, the represen- 
tation of the family devolved on the family of Knox of 
Silvieland. Of this branch the ancestor was William, second 
son of Uchter Knox of Eanfurlie by his wife, Janet Sempill. 
He had, it is believed, as his first wife the heiress of Silvieland, 
an estate granted to her ancestor Stephen, son of Nicholas, by 
James, Steward of Scotland, early in the reign of King Eobert 
the Bruce. William Knox, who acquired the lands of Silvie- 
land, married, secondly, Margaret, daughter of Patrick Fleming 
of Barrachan, by whom he had a son, William, who built a 
family mansion. 

William Knox, second of Silvieland, married Margaret, 
daughter of George Maxwell of Newark, by his wife Marion, 
daughter of William Cunningham of Craigends, and widow of 
Uchter Knox of Eanfurlie. By her he had two sons, his suc- 
cessor, and Marcus.^ 

John Knox of Silvieland died in August 1574. In his 
will, made in the month of April preceding, he constituted 
" Thomas Knok, his eldest son and heir, and John and Wil- 
liam Knok, his other sons, intromitters with his whole estate ; " 
he bequeathed his movable property to them and to his 
daughter Janet, in equal shares. The free residue of his 
goods was set down at £427, 6s. 8d., with a further sum of 
£160, 13s. 4d.3 

Thomas Knox, eldest son of John Knox of Silvieland, 
died on the 15th November 1592. His free personal estate 
was valued at £1556, 10s., of which he bequeathed a third 
part to be divided among his children by his first wife. 

^ Crawfurd's MS. Genealogy. ' Ibid. ^ Edin. Com. Reg., vol. iii. 


In his will are named "Barbara Semple, his spouse," and 
"William Knox, his eldest son and appeii-and heir;" 
AVilliam Knox in Third and his son Thomas are witnesses.^ 

Robert Knox, a younger son of Thomas Knox of Silvie- 
land, died in November 1625, apparently without lawful 
issue. William, the eldest son, married Margaret Maxwell 
(died January 1622), and by her had a son, Alexander, and 
a daughter, Jean. Alexander is styled of Silvieland in 1625; 
he and liis sister are legatees in the will of their uncle, 

Marcus Knox, second son of William Knox, second of 
Silvieland, and Ms wife, Margaret Maxwell, was a merchant- 
burgess of Glasgow. He seems to have been twice married, 
first to Isobel, daughter of Archibald Lyon, an opulent 
burgess of Glasgow ; and secondly, to Margaret Greenlees, 
also connected with a Glasgow family of substance. The 
latter died on the 22d July 1604, leaving movable pro- 
perty valued at £3210, 10s. Id. In her will she nominates 
her husband as her only executor, and bequeaths her 
means to her four children, Janet, Michael, Robert, and 
Thomas. To Thomas, whom she describes as her youngest 
son, she leaves a special legacy of four hundred merks.^ 

By Mr George Crawfurd, Archibald Lyon, father-in-law 
of Marcus Klnox, is described as "a younger son of the 
Lord Glamis's family, that are now Earls of Strathmore 
and Kinghorn." He adds : " He fell into trade at Glasgow, 
and got an immense estate, chiefly in the city, and was 
esteemed the greatest merchant in his time. He married 

* Edin. Com. Reg,, vol. xxv. 

* Hamilton of Wishaw's Lanarkshire, pp. 125, 126 ; Dr Gordon's History of 
Glasgow, 1872, vol. ii., pp. 697, 698. 

^ Edin. Com. Reg., vol. xl. 


a gentlewoman in the west that brought him a very con- 
siderable alliance and friendship, viz., Margaret, daughter 
of James Dunlop of that Ilk in Ayrshire, whose lady was 
Elizabeth Hamilton, daughter of Gavin Hamilton of Orbres- 
ton, in Lanarksliire, descended but lately before that of an 
immediate brother of the illustrious house of Hamilton — I 
mean the Duke of Hamilton's family. Mr Lyon left a 
most numerous progeny flowing from his daughters, that 
the most wealthy and most considerable people of Glasgow 
and the neighbouring gentry are descended of him." 

In a modern " History of Glasgow," it has been proved by 
Mr Joseph Bain, that Archibald Lyon was son of Donald 
Lyon, a merchant in the city, whose ancestors seem to have 
long before traded in the place. Mr Bain denies that Marcus 
Knox had Isobel Lyon as his first wife, alleging that Margaret 
Greenlees was his only spouse.^ On the other hand, Mr- 
Bain shows, from an instrument of apprising, dated 1st 
October 1663, that Marcus Knox had an eldest son, William. 
Now, in the will of Margaret Greenlees, wife of Marcus Knox, 
she, in enumerating her children, among whom she divides 
her substance, omits to name William, which would serve 
to show that he was born of a former marriage, and through 
his own mother adequately provided for. According to John 
M'Ure, who published a history of Glasgow in 1736, Marcus 
Knox presented a great bell to the cathedral of that city, in 
place of one which had been removed at the Eeformation. The 
bell was accidentally rent in 1789, when it was re-cast, a 
legend, indicating the original donor, being inscribed upon it.^ 

1 History of Glasgow, edited by J. T, S. Gordon, D.D., and others, 1872, 
pp. 450, 696-701, 854-857. 
^ Pr Gordon's History of Glasgow, p. 689. In this work Mr Joseph Bain 


Marcus Knox is known to have survived the 31st May 
1610, when his name appears in a contract in connection 
mth his property.^ Of his eldest and youngest sons we 
obtain some particulars. William Knox, the eldest son, was 
a merchant-burgess of Glasgow. He married, and had an 
eldest son, John, apparently a minor in 1659. He died 
iDefore this period, in circumstances of indigence.^ 

Thomas, youngest son of Marcus Knox and Margaret 
Greenlees, engaged in merchandise at Glasgow. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Andrew Spang, an opulent" merchant 
at Glasgow, and whose son William was pastor of the 
Scottish Church at Eotterdam, and author of a work on the 
civil war. William Spang, father of Andrew Spang, and 
grandfather of Mrs Elizabeth Knox, an eminent physician 
and apothecary at Glasgow, married Christian Hamilton, of 
the family of Silverton Hill, a branch of the noble House of 

By his vnie, Elizabeth Spang, Thomas Knox had three 
sons, Thomas, William, and John, and two daughters, Helen 
and Margaret. Helen, the elder daughter, married Henry 
Crawford, merchant, Glasgow, with issue two sons, Thomas 
and William, and a daughter Helen. Margaret, the younger 
daughter, married John Hay of Inchnoch, with issue a child 
who died in infancy.* 

Thomas, eldest son of Thomas Knox and Elizabeth Spang, 
was a merchant and shipowner in Belfast. He was sovereign 
or chief magistrate of Belfast in 1685. Having purchased 
lands at Dungannon, in the county of Tyrone, which 

seeks to disprove that Marcus Knox was donor of the bell. The question is 

1 Dr Gordon's History of Glasgow, p. 698. ^ /j^^ ggg^ 599 

' Crawfurd's Genealogy. * M'Ure's History of Glasgow. 


formed part of the estate of the Earls of Donegal, he left 
Belfast and retired to his possessions. Consequently, on 
the 17th October 1697, he addressed to the corporation of 
Belfast a letter resigning his position as a burgess. The 
letter proceeds thus : 

" Whereas I have now changed the place of my residence, 
and removed from Belfast to Dungannon, where I cannot be so 
useful or serviceable to the corporation as my inclinations do 
lead me, and my place of a burgess doth require, I do there- 
fore resign my place of burgess into the hands of the Et. 
Hon. Arthur, Earl of Donegal, sovereign of the said borough, 
and to the rest of the burgesses, to be by them disposed of, as 
in justice and equity they shall think fit. As witness my 
hand this 17th October 1697. Thomas Knox."i 

Thomas Knox of Dungannon has, by George Crawfurd the 
genealogist, been celebrated thus : 

" He was all his life long firmly attached to the Protestant 
interest, and distinguished himself eminently that way in 
the reign of King James VII. As he had always the settle- 
ment of the Crown in the Protestant line much at heart, 
so when he saw that settled by Act of Parliament, no man 
had gi'eater joy or expressed more satisfaction in it as the 
surest and firmest bulwark of the religion and liberties of 
the subject. Mr Knox eminently distinguished himself in 
his zeal in the latter end of the reign of Queen Anne, in 
maintaining and supporting the right of succession in the 
illustrious House of Hanover, and even lessened his estate, 
at least for a time, in making representatives for the House 
of Commons in Ireland that were all firm to the Protestant 
succession. Upon the accession of King George I. to the 
crown, Mr Knox's eminent merit and services having been 
justly represented and laid before his Majesty, his Majesty 

^ History of Belfast, by George Benn, p. 265. 


had so due a sense of his great merit, as he proposed to raise 
him to be a peer of the realm of Ireland, and named him 
one of the Lords of his most honourable Privy Council. By 
reason of his great age and that he had no heir-male of his 
own body, and even from an excess of modesty, he declined 
the honour of peerage, which could not have subsisted long, 
since dignities in that kingdom, as conferred on the patentee 
and the heirs-male of their bodies, are not descendable to heirs 
of line and law "without a special limitation. But though 
Mr Knox had left Scotland and settled in Ireland, yet he 
took care that a record or authentic voucher should remain 
in Scotland of his descent from the ancient family of Ean- 
furly, and of which in his own time he came to be the repre- 
sentative, for he applied to the Lord Lyon, Sir Charles 
Erskine of Cambo, to get his coat of arms matriculate, which 
was done accordingly, and is recorded in the Lyon Office, viz. : 

" ' Thomas Knox, Esq., in the kingdom of Ireland, lawfull 
son to Thomas Knox, descended of the family of Eanfurlie, 
in tlie . kingdom of Scotland : Gules, a falcon volant, or, 
within an orb wa\'y on the outer side and ingrailled on the 
inner side, argent. Crest — A falcon close perching proper. 
Motto—'' Moveo et Proficior." ' 

" But this coat of arms was given to Mr Knox w^hen he 
was but a cadet and a branch of the House of Eanfurlie, but 
when he came to be heir-male and representative of the 
family himself, he might, in my humble opinion, have disused 
this mark of cadency, the ingrailling of the border on the 
inner side, and worn it altogether waved as the principal 
coat, and his heirs of line, tailzie, and provision may do the 
same." ^ 

Thomas Knox of Dungannon married a daughter of Mr 
Kirk, M.P. for Carrickfergus, and was father of three 
daughters. His eldest daughter, married General Echlin, 

1 Crawfurd, MS. Genealogy of Family of Knox. 


by whom she had one son, who assumed the name and 
arms of Knox, and succeeded to the Dungannon estates. 
He died in London unmarried.^ 

William, second son of Thomas Knox and Elizabeth Spang, 
was a merchant-burgess of Glasgow. Mr George Crawfurd, 
who knew him personally, states that he died without issue 
in April 1728, aged seventy-six, bequeathing to his nephew, 
Thomas Knox of Dungannon, a considerable fortune.^ This 
fortune is set down by M'Ure, the Glasgow historian, at one 
hundred thousand merks. 

John, third and youngest son of Thomas Knox and Eliza- 
beth Spang, acquired the lands of Ballycreely, near Comber, 
county Down. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Hugh 
Keith, county Down, whose ancestors belonged to Galston 
in Ayrshire.^ Dying in 1722, he was succeeded by his only 
son, Thomas, who was deputy-governor of the county Tyrone, 
and sometime M.P. for Dungannon. Thomas Knox died in 
1769. His wife was Hester, daughter of John Echlin of 
Ardquin, county Down, and grand-daughter of Eobert Echlin, 
Bishop of Down and Connor, who died 1635, and whose 
father was Andrew Echlin of Pittadro, Fife, son of William 
Echlin, who in 1517 was representative of the old family 
which bore his name.^ 

By his wife, Hester Echlin, Thomas Knox was father of 
two sons, Thomas and John, and two daughters, Hester and 
Elizabeth. Hester, the elder daughter, married James 
Moutray of Favour Koyal, county Tyrone, M.P. Elizabeth, 
the second daughter, married Matthew Forde, Esq. of Sea- 

1 M 'lire's History of Glasgow. ' Crawfurd's MS. Genealogy. 

' Hill's Montgomery Manuscripts, Belfast, 1869, p. 163. 

* Ibid.f p. 137 ; Crawfurd's Memoirs of the Echlins of Pittadro. 


fonle, county Down. John, the second son, married, in 1766, 
the only daughter of Henry Waring, Esq. of Waringstown, 
county Down, by whom he had two sons, Henry and Thomas. 
Thomas became a lieutenant-colonel in the foot-guards. He 
married Emma, daughter of Thomas Williams, Esq., and by 
her (who married, secondly. General Sir Henry Campbell, 
K.C.B.) had three sons — Henry, Thomas, and Brownlow, 
M.P. Brownlow Knox married Miss Sutton. 

Thomas Knox, elder son of Thomas Knox of Dungannon, 
was bom 29th April 1729 ; he succeeded in 1769 to the 
paternal estates. After long representing in Parliament the 
borough of Dungannon, he was, on the 16th January 1781, 
raised to the peerage of Ireland, as Baron Welles. On the 
5th July 1791, he was created Viscount Northland. He died 
5th November 1818. By his wife, Anne, second daughter 
of John, first Lord Knapton, and sister of John, first Vis- 
count de Vesci (she died 14th October 1803), he had seven 
sons — Thomas, John, Vesey, William, George, Charles, and 

John, the second son, a major-general in the army, was 
appointed governor of Jamaica in 1800 ; he was drowned on 
his passage to that island. i 

Vesey, third son, was born in 1760. He married, in 1792, 
Catherine, daughter of General Gisborne (died 1830), and by 
her had two sons and a daughter, Marian Diana, who married 
the Rev. Eichard Nugent Horner. Thomas Gisborne, the 
elder son, born 6th May 1799, died unmarried in February 
1853. Edmund Francis, the second son, born 1802, married, 
in 1831, Mary Anne, daughter of the Eev. Bernard Ward 
(died 1850), and by her had Vesey Thomas Edmund, born 
1836. An officer in the 52d Infantry, he married, 1st 


October 1862, Margaret Clarissa, second daughter of the 
Eev. James P. Garrett, rector of Kellistown, county Carlow, 
with issue — Bernard Henry, born 1846 ; Thomas Fortescue, 
born 1850; Catherine, married in 1857 Richard Ross, M.D.; 
Fanny, died 1861 ; and Caroline. 

William Knox, fourth son of Thomas Knox, Viscount 
Northland, was born in 1762. Entering the Church, he 
was in 1794 appointed Bishop of Killaloe, and in 1803 
was preferred to the bishopric of Derry. 

Bishop William Knox married, in 1785, Anne, daughter of 
James Spencer, Esq. (died 1834), by whom he had four sons 
and eight daughters. James Spencer Knox, D.D,, the eldest 
son, born 1789, died 1862. He published " The Mediator of 
the New Covenant," Dublin, 1835, 8vo; and " The Thought- 
ful Year," Dublin, 1844, 8vo. He married, in 1813, Clara, 
daughter of the Right Hon. John Beresford (died 1862), and 
by her had three sons and four daughters. The eldest son, 
Thomas George, born 1824, was, prior to 1851, a lieutenant 
in the 98th Regiment. He is now Consul-general at Siam ; 
and has married (with issue) a princess of that kingdom. 
Charles John Beresford, second son, born 1825, is in holy 
orders ; he married, in 1857, Christina, daughter of the Rev. 
Edward Leslie, with issue. George Beresford, third son, was 
born 1830. Of the daughters, Barbara Anne married, 1845, 
John Stevenson; Clara Elizabeth married, 1847, John 
Madden of Spring Grove, Fermanagh — she died in 1861; 
Isabella Frances and Frances Harriet are unmarried. 

William, second son of Bishop William Knox, was born 
ill 1790, and was a clergyman of the Irish Church. He 
married, first, in 1811, Sarah, daughter of Sir A. Ferguson, 
Bart., by whom he had three sons — William, Andrew Fergu- 


son, and Thomas John. William, the eldest son, bora 
1813, was of the INladras Civil Service. He married, in 
1853, Gertrude, daughter of T. Dobine, E.N.; she died 
in 1860, leaving William, born 1858, Frances Emma, and 
Emily Annie. He married, secondly, 11th July 1862, 
Mary Isabella, daughter of B. Trend, Esq. of Boskell, 
county Limerick, and niece of Field-Marshal Viscount 

Andrew Ferguson Knox of Urney Park, second son of the 
Rev. William Knox and Sarah Ferguson, was born in 1816. 
He married Katherine, daughter of Latham Blacker, Esq., 
and died in 1870, leaving William Ferguson, bom in 1861, 
and other issue. 

Thomas John, third son of the Eev. William Knox, born 
1819, married, in 1849, Emma Augusta, daughter of James 
Carey, Esq. of Guernsey. 

The Rev. William Knox married, secondly, in 1821, Louisa, 
daughter of the Rev. Sir J. Robinson, Bart., and died in 1860, 
having by her (who died in 1849) had issue — Mary Louisa, 
married John Boyd, Esq. of Ballynacool ; Anne Ellen, married 
the Rev. J. Carey; Charlotte Esther; and Frances Emily, 
married Robert Vesey Truell, Esq., who died in 1867. 

George Knox, third son of Bishop William Knox, born 
1799, became lieutenant-colonel in the Coldstream Guards. 
Charles Henry, fourth son, born 1808, was lieutenant-colonel 
in the army ; he died in 1864. Colonel C. H. Knox trans- 
lated Goethe's "Faust," and among other works published 
" Harry Mowbray," Lond., 1843, 8vo; ''Day Dreams," Lond., 
1843, 8vo; "Traditions of Westem Germany," Lond., 1841, 
3 vols. 8vo; "The Spuit of the Polka," Lond., 1845, 8vo; 
" The Ark and the Deluge," Lond., 1852, 8vo; '' Confessions 


of Country Qiuarters/' Lond., 1852, 3 vols. 8vo ; " The Defen- 
sive Position of England/' Lond., 1852, 8vo ; and " The Six 
Days/' Lond., 1853, 8vo. 

Of the bishop's eight daughters, Jane, the eldest, died in 
1861 ; Anne EKzabeth, the second daughter, died unmarried ; 
Isabella, third daughter, married, in 1824, Octavius Wigram, 
and is deceased ; Selina Elizabeth, fourth daughter, married, 
in 1816, William Ponsonby Barker, and is deceased; Frances 
Leticia, fifth daughter, married, in 1837, the Hon. and Eev. 
A. W. Pomeroy ; Henrietta Mary Octavia, sixth daughter, mar- 
ried, 1845, Mons. Adolphe Auguste de Sturler, and is deceased; 
Emily Lavinia, the seventh daughter, married, in 1842, Major- 
General Ormsby, R.A., governor of the Eoyal Military 
Academy, Woolwich, and by him (died 1869) has an only 
child, Frances Emily, married, first. Colonel H. F. Strange, 
C.B., RH.A., and secondly, February 1875, Percy Smyth 
Beamish, Esq., of the Admiralty ; Helen Adelaide, eighth 
daughter, married, in 1850, the Rev. W. A. Ormsby. 

The Right Hon. George Knox, D.C.L., fifth son of Thomas 
Knox, Viscount Northfield, married, first, in 1805, Anne, 
second daughter of Sir Thomas Staples, Bart., who died in 
1811, and by her had issue three sons, Thomas Pery, Henry 
Barry, and George James. Thomas Pery, the eldest son, born 
1805, married Frances Elizabeth, daughter of Captain George 
Burdett, R.N., with issue — George Uchter, major R.A., born 
1837; and Catherine Isabella Florence. Henry Barry, the 
second son, born 1808, co-dean of Booking, rector of Hadleigh, 
Suffolk, married, first, 1841, Jane, daughter of the Hon. and 
Rev. Arthur Vesey, and by her (Avho died in 1846) had issue, 
Anne Louisa. He married, secondly, 1856, Elizabeth Jane, 
daughter of the Hon. Admiral E. S. P. Knox, and by her 


(who died in 1855), had issue, Emily Jane. George James, 
the thii'd son, was born in 1810. 

The Eight Hon. George Knox married, secondly, Harriet, 
daughter of Thomas Fortescue, Esq., who died in 1 8 1 6. By her 
he had a son, John Chichester, captain of dragoons, born 1815, 
married, 1853, Lady Louisa Dawson Damer, sister of the Earl 
of Portarlington ; also a daughter, Isabella, who married, in 
1837, J. Tisdall, Esq. of Charlesfort, county Meath. The 
Eight Hon. George Knox died in 1827. 

Charles Knox, sixth son of Thomas Knox, Viscount North- 
land, was ordained deacon and priest in 1799, and in 1814 
was appointed Archdeacon of Armagh; he died in 1825. 
By his wife, Hannah, daughter of Eobert Bent, Esq., M.P., 
and widow of James Fletcher, Esq. (she died in 1852), he 
had issue four sons. 

Thomas, the eldest son, rector of Lurgan, born 1817, 
married, first, in 1840, Eliza Winckworth, daughter of Ellis 
Bent, Esq. (who died in 1850), and by her had issue — Charles 
Jeffrey, Madras Civil Service, born 7th July 1841, married, 11th 
August 1864, Elizabeth Georgia a, third daughter of the Eev. 
Thomas Dawson Logan, rector of Charlestoun, county Louth, 
and has issue — Thomas Vesey Melrith, born 17th August 
1865 ; Charles Arthur Northland, born 15th January 1867 ; 
Ellis Heniy, born 1842 ; Eobert Uchtred, born 1844 ; Dawson 
Thomas, born 1845 ; Vesey, born 1847 ; Cheney John Maun- 
sell, born 1848. He married, secondly, in 1861, Emily Jane, 
daughter of the Eev. T. D. Logan, and by her has William 
Arthur Logan, born 1864; Thomas George Keith, born 1869 ; 
Frances Mary Winifred, and Emily Elizabeth. 

Eobert Bent Knox, D.D., Bishop of Down, Connor, and 
Dromore, is second son of Charles Knox, Archdeacon of 


Armagh. Born 25tli September 1808, he married, 5th 
October 1842, Catherine Delia, daughter of Thomas Gibbon 
Fitzgibbon of Ballyseeda, county Limerick, by whom he has 
had Charles Edmond, born 1846 ; Thomas John, born 1848, 
married, 8th August 1871, Edith Maud, eldest daughter of 
William Anketell, Esq. of ArdtuUa, county Down, and died 
5th December 1875; Eobert John Sheffington, born 1851, 
died 5th May 1874; Edith Katherine Mary, and Evelyn 
Katherine Isabel. 

Charles George Knox, third son of Archdeacon Charles 
Knox, died in July 1878. He married, in 1840, Isabella 
Hannah, daughter of Ellis Bent, Esq., with issue, Ada Eliza, 
Isabel Maud, Kathleen, and Mary'Gisborne. Kathleen Knox 
has published "Eather Time's Story -Book," London, 1873; 
"Fairy Gifts," London, 1875; "Lily of the Valley," London, 
1875; " Meadowleigh," London, 1876; "Seven Bii'thdays," 
London, 1876; "Wndflower Win," London, 1876; also 
"Queen Dora: the Life and Lessons of a Little Girl." 
George John, fourth son of Archdeacon Charles Knox, was 
born in 1815. 

Edmund Knox, D.D., seventh son of Thomas Knox, Vis- 
count Northland, entered the Church. Dean of Down in 
1817, he was, in 1831, consecrated Bishop of Killaloe ; and in 
1834 was preferred to the see of Limerick. He died in 1849. 

Bishop Edmund Knox married, in 1796, Anna Charlotte, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Hesketh, Bart., and by her (who 
died in 1837), had two sons and four daughters. The eldest 
son, Edmund Dalrymple, Archdeacon of Killaloe, was born 
in 1801. By his wife, Agnes Mary, daughter of Lieut.-Colonel 
Hay, he has had issue — Charlotte, married, 1852, Thomas 
Bathj Esq. ; Anne Georgina, married, 1864, William Dunville, 


Esq. of Eiclimond Lodge, county Dowu; Agues Isabella, 
married, 1850, Colonel Henry H. Greer, C.B., of the Grange, 
^loy, county Tyi'one. 

Charles, second son of Bishop Edmund Knox, born 1811, 
man-ied, in 1838, Mary Anne, daughter of George Hardacre, 
Esq. Jesse Diana, eldest daughter, married, in 1827, the 
Rev. J. T. O'Neill. Harriet Anne, second daughter, mar- 
ried, in 1819, D. E. Ross, Esq., and died 4th February 1864 ; 
he died 1850. Fanny, thu'd daughter, married, in 1832, the 
Rev. Marcus M'Causland. Ann, fourth daughter, married, 
1832, Colonel Henry Smith, who was killed at Inkerman; 
she died in 1859. 

Thomas, eldest son of Lord Northland, was born 5th 
August 1754, and succeeded his father as second viscount. 
He was, on the 6th July 1826, created a peer of the United 
Kingdom, as Baron Ranfurly, and in September 1831 was 
advanced in the peerage of Ireland as Earl of Ranfurly. His 
lordship died 26th April 1840. He married, 2d June 1785, 
Diana Jane, eldest daughter and co-heiress of Edmond, 
Viscount Pery, and by her (who died 24th November 1839) 
had four sons and a daughter, Frances, who died at Nice on 
the 26th December 1861. 

Edmond Sexton Pery Knox, second son of the first Earl 
of Ranfurly, an admiral in the Royal Navy, was born in 1787, 
and died 24th March 1867. Having married, 3d July 1813, 
Jane, daughter of William Hope Vere, Esq. (who died 24th 
November 1785), he had by her one son and three daughters. 

Thomas Edmond Knox, only son of Admiral Edmond 
Knox, became a major-general in the army, and C.B. ; he 
was born 16th March 1820. He married, 22d October 1826, 
Lucy Diana, daughter of William W. Maunsell, Archdeacon 


of Limerick, with issue — Thomas Francis Edmond, captain 
Koyal Hussars; William George, lieutenant E.H.A., born 
20th October 1847; Frederick Charles Northland, sub-lieu- 
tenant in the army, born 8th November 1857 ; and Alice 
Elizabeth, married Eev. W. Blake. 

Of the three daughters of Admiral Edmond Knox, Eliza- 
beth Jane married the Very Eev. Henry Barry Knox, and 
died 4th March 1855. Susan Euphemia and Isabella Mary 
Cecil are unmarried. 

John Henry Knox, third son of the first Earl of Eanfuiiy, 
was born 26th July 1788, and died 27th August 1872. He 
married, 12th February 1822, Mabella Josephine, daughter 
of Francis, first Earl of Kilmorey, by whom he had six 
daughters and four sons. Thomas Francis, the eldest son, born 
24th December 1822, is priest of the Oratory, Brompton. 
Henry Needham, second son, commander E.N., born 19th 
May 1831, married, 1st March 1859, Alexandrina Henrietta 
Wilhelmina, daughter of Mons. Lant by his wife, Isabella 
Eoper, and by her (who died 1875) has Edward, born 23d 
September 1860 ; Lucy, born 14th May 1862 ; and Alice 
Charlotte, born 12th June 1863. 

Octavius Newry, thii'd son of John Henry Knox, born 8th 
April 1836, married, 23d August 1866, Lucy, fourth daughter 
of the late Hon. S. E. Spring Eice, with issue — Geoffrey, born 
11th January, died 30th March 1871; Lionel Stephen, born 
5th February 1874, died 20th May following ; Hester, born 
19th July 1867 ; and another daughter, born lOtli December 

Arthur Edward Ellis, fourth son, was born 12th August 

John James Knox, lieutenant- colonel in the army, fourth 


son of the first Earl of Eanfurly, was born 3d April 1790. 
He married Mary Loiisia, daughter of Edward Taylor, Esq. 
of Bifrons, county Kent, and died 9th July 1856, leaving a 
daughter, Emily Louisa Diana, married, 25th September 
1845, Robert Dundas, Esq. of Arniston, Edinburghshire. 

Thomas Knox, eldest son of the first Earl of Ranfurly, 
was born 19th April 1786. He succeeded as second earl in 
1840, and died 21st March 1858. His lordship married, 28th 
February 1815, Mary Juliana, daughter of the Most Rev. 
Wniiam Stuart, Archbishop of Armagh, and Primate of 
all Ireland, and by her (who died 11th July 1866) had three 
sons and six daughters. WilHam Stuart, the second son, 
born 11th March 1826, is a colonel in the army, and was 
sometime M.P. for Diingannon. He married, 26th August 
1856, Georgina, daughter of John Bonfoy Rooper, Esq. of 
Abbot's Ripton, Hunts, by whom he has a son, Thomas 
Granville, born 22d December 1868, and two daughters, 
Violet Mary and Florence May. 

Granville Hemy John, third son of the second Earl of Ran- 
furly, was born 1st August 1829, and died 18th August 1845. 
^Mary Stuart, eldest daughter, married, 20th September 1854, 
John^ Page Reade, Esq. of Stretton, county Suffolk. Louise 
Juliana, second daughter, married, 14th August 1839, Henry 
Alexander of Forkill, county Armagh, with issue. Elizabeth 
Henrietta, third daughter, is unmarried. Juliana Caroline 
Frances, fourth daughter, married, 15th October 1862, Lieut- 
General Sir Edward Walter Forestier Walker, K.C.B., of 
Manor House, Bushey, Herts, colonel 94th Foot. Flora Sophia 
Ann, fifth daughter, is unmarried. Adelaide Henrietta Louisa 
Hortense, married, 26th September 1850, Joseph Goff, Esq. of 
Hale Park, Hants, who died in 1872. 



Thomas Knox, eldest son of the second Earl of Eanfurly, 
was born 13th November 1816. He succeeded his father as 
third earl, 21st March 1858, and died on the 20th May of 
the same year. 

Thomas, third Earl of Eanfurly, married, 10th October 

1848, Harriet, daughter of James Eimington, Esq. of 
Broomhead Hall, Yorkshire, with issue two sons and a 
daughter, Agnes Henrietta Sarah, who married, 1st December 
1870, Nugent Murray Whitmore Daniell, Esq., Bombay C.S. 

Thomas Granville Henry Stuart, elder son, born 28th July 

1849, succeeded his father as fourth earl. A captain of the 
Grenadier Guards, he died in Abyssinia, 10th May 1875. 
In the earldom he was succeeded by his brother, Uchter John 
Mark, born 14th August 1856. 

The Earl of Eanfurly bears as his escutcheon : Gules, a falcon 
volant, or, within an orb, wavy on the outer and engrailed on 
the inner side, argent. Crest — A falcon close, standing on a 
perch proper. Sup2:)orters — Two falcons, wings inverted, 
proper, ducally gorged, lined, beaked, numbered, and belled 
or. Motto — " Moveo et proficior." 

William Knox, of the Silvieland branch, by Mr George 
Crawfurd erroneously described as a son of Marcus Knox of 
Glasgow,^ proceeded to Ireland, and engaging in merchandise 
at Dublin, became opulent. He acquired the estate of 
Lifford, in county Donegal, and having married Camp- 
bell, by her left at his decease in 1650 (with three 
daughters) two sons, John and William. The former 
having settled at Dublin, was elected sheriff of that city 
in 1675, and Lord Mayor in 1685. He was knighted 6th 
February 1685. He had a grant by Privy Seal, dated at 

^ See supra, p. 20. 


Wliitehall 23d October 1G85, confirmed by another dated at 
Dublin, 29tli December 1685, giving him the exclusive right 
of a copper coinage for Ireland for twenty-one years. He 
married Hannah, sister of Colonel Eoger Moore, M.P. for 
Phillipstown and Mullingar, and died, without issue, 3d 
November 1687. 

William, second son of William Knox of Lifford and 

Campbell, was born about 1630. He purchased lands 

in the counties of Sligo and Eoscommon and the estate of 
Castlerea in the county of Mayo, and his name is appended 
to the loyal addresses from that county to Charles II. in 1682 
and 1683. In his will, dated 30th July 1705, and proved 
20th November 1707, he names liis cousin, John Knox of 
Dungannon. He married, first, Mary, daughter of Eoger 
Palmer of Castle Lacken, county Mayo, by whom he had 
three sons, Francis, Arthur, and Eichard, and a daughter, 
Mary. He married, secondly, the daughter and heiress of 

Crofton, of Eappa Castle, by whom he had two sons, 

William, of Dublin, clerk of the Crown, of the Peace, and 
of the Assizes for the province of Connaught, and John. 

Mary, only daughter of William Knox of Castlerea, 
married, in 1705, Thomas Bell, Esq., alderman of Dublin, 
and Lord Mayor in 1702. 

Eichard of Lissadrone, county Mayo, third son of William 
Knox of Castlerea, died in 1754, without issue. Francis, the 
eldest son, born 1682, acquired the estate of Moyne Abbey, 
county Mayo, of which he was high sheriff in 1718. He 
died in 1730. He married Dorothy, fourth daughter and 
co-heiress of Maurice Annesley of Little Eath, county KQ- 
dare, nephew of Arthur, first Earl of Anglesea, by whom he 
had three sons, Thomas, James, and Francis; also four 


daughters. Sarali, eldest daughter, married Francis Blake, 
Esq. ; Dorothy, second daughter, born 15th November 1729, 
married Thomas Kutledge, Esq. of Killala; EUinor, third 
daughter, born 22d November 1730, died unmarried; Mary- 
Ann, fourth daughter, born 3d May 1728, died in 1800 un- 
married ; Thomas, the eldest son, died unmarried. 

James Knox of Moyne Abbey, second son of Francis Knox 
and Dorothy Annesley, was born 22d July 1724, and died in 
1806. He married Dorothea, second daughter of Peter Eut- 
ledge, Esq. of Cornfield, by whom he had four sons and four 
daughters. Francis, the eldest son, of Moyne Abbey, born 
1754, was assistant barrister in the county of Sligo, and king's 
counsel. In 1797 he represented Phillipstown in Parliament. 
He died unmarried 12th April 1821. John, second son, of 
Summer Hill, Dubhn, married Sarah, daughter of Daniel 
Graham, Esq., of county Mayo, with issue. WiUiam, the 
third son, entered the East India Company's service, and died 
in his nineteenth year. James, fourth son, captain in the 
51st Foot, died at Armagh. 

Francis Knox, third son of Francis Knox of Moyne Abbey 
and Dorothy Annesley, born 16th July 1726, settled at 
Eappa Castle, county Mayo, of which county, as well as of 
Sligo, he served as high sheriff. He died in 1813. Having 
married, 25th March 1761, Mary, daughter and co-heiress 
of Annesley Gore, Esq. of Belleek, M.P., county Mayo, 
brother of Arthur, first Earl of Arran (she died 31st October 
1818), he had by her six sons and six daughters. 

Annesley Gore Knox, the eldest son, succeeded his father 
in the estate of Eappa Castle, and died 4th July 1839. 
Having married, 28th July 1793, Harriette, sister of Sir Eoss 
Mahon, Bart., he had issue eight sons and five daughters. 


Francis and Ross, the first and second sons, died yonng. 
Annesley Knox, the eldest surviving son, born 1798, suc- 
ceeded his father. He married, 18th October 1833, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Arthur Knox, Esq. of Bushfield, county 
Mayo, with issue seven sons and six daughters. Of three 
sons who survived their father — viz., Annesley Arthur, Ross 
Mahon, Robert Henry — and Francis Richard, the eldest, 
Annesley Arthur has succeeded to the family estate. 

St George Henry Knox, in holy orders, second surviving son 
of Annesley Gore Knox of Rappa Castle, married, December 
1836, Ann C. St George, with male issue. James Annesley, 
J.P., third surviving son, married, 28th March 1833, Mary 
Mina, daughter of Henry William Knox, Esq. of Netley Park, 
with issue two sons and two daughters. John, fourth son, 
married, and has sons. Henry Augustus, fifth son, married 
Eleanor, daughter of Henry William Knox, Esq., with issue 
three sons and two daughters. Francis William, the sixth 
son, is unmarried. 

Francis Knox, J. P., second son of Francis Knox and Mary 
Gore, died in 1803 unmarried. James, third son, was born 
25th March 1774. He settled at Broadlands Park, county 
Mayo, and represented Taghmon, county Wexford, in the last 
Irish Parliament. In compliance with the will of his 
maternal gi-andfather, he assumed the surname and arms of 
Gore in addition to those of Knox, by sign-manual, dated 
23d April 1813. He died 21st October 1818. 

James Knox Gore married, 19th January 1800, Lady 
Maria Louisa Gore, eldest daughter of Arthur Saunders, 
second Earl of Arran, by his second wife, and by her (who 
died 6th March 1827) had issue five sons and four daughters. 
James, the second son, married Henriette, daughter of 


Annesley Gore Knox, Esq. of Eappa Castle. Henry William, 
third son, a captain in the army, died unmarried 2 2d January 
1846. Annesley, fourth son, is a colonel in the Indian Army. 
George Edward, fifth son, is captain, E.N. 

Francis Arthur, eldest son of James Knox Gore, Esq. of 
Broadlands Park, settled at Belleek Manor, county Mayo, 
where he formed a beautiful demesne, was born 23d June 
1803. Colonel of the Sligo Militia, he was also, from 1831 
to 1868, when he resigned, lieutenant and custos rohdorum 
of that county; he was created a baronet 5th December 
1868. He died 21st May 1873. 

Sir Francis Arthur Knox Gore married, 4th August 1829, 
Sarah, daughter of Charles Nesbett Knox, Esq. of Castle 
Lacken, with issue, two sons and six daughters. Charles 
James Knox Gore, the elder son, born 20th September 1831, 
succeeded his father as second baronet in 1873. Arthur 
William, the second son, born 28th October 1838, is lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the N. Mayo Militia. He married, 10th 
March 1863, Harriette Emily, daughter of Eichard M, Garden, 
Esq. of Fishmoyne, county Tipperary. 

Henry William Knox, fourth son of Francis Knox of 
Eappa Castle and Mary Gore, was captain, 6th Dragoon 
Guards, and served as high sheriff of Mayo in 1810. He 
died 6th October 1816. Having on the 2d July 1806 
married Jane, eldest daughter of the Eev. William Eogers, 
D.D., of Kells, county Meath (who died 13th February 
1835), he had issue, three sons and three daughters. 

Henry William Knox, the eldest surviving son, born 9th 
December 1809, succeeded his father in the estate of 
Netley Park. He married, first, 7th December 1835, Isabella 
Antoinette, youngest daughter of John Peel, Esq., of Burton- 


on-Treut, who died 19th December 1838 ; and secondly, in 
1842, Eliza, eldest daughter of the O'Grady of Kilballyowen. 
Mr Knox died 24th September 1859, and was in his estate of 
Netley Park succeeded by his surviving brother, Annesley 
Gore Knox, who died unmarried 23d October 1863. The 
estate of Netley Park is now in the possession of Mary 
Mina, eldest daughter of Henry William Knox and Jane 
Eogers. She married, 28th March 1833, James Annesley 
Knox, and by him, who died in 1849, had issue, three sons, 
James Fitzroy (died in 1872, unmarried), Granville Henry, 
and Lionel William ; also two daughters. Jane Harriet, the 
elder daughter, married to Albert Henry Knox, Esq., pay- 
master, Sligo Militia, with issue, three sons, Albert Frederick, 
Ernest Henry, and Alfred Douglas ; also six daughters, Mina 
Eveline Anna, Constance Louisa, Edith Kathleen, Florence 
Isabel, Emily Mabel, and Nina Gwendaline. Constance 
]\Iina, second daughter of James Annesley Knox, married 
Edward Leet, late captain, North Mayo Eegiment, with issue. 

Arthur Knox of Bushfield, county Mayo, fifth son of 
Francis Knox of Piappa Castle and Mary Gore, born 1785, 
married Barbara, only daughter of Joseph Lambert, Esq. of 
Brookhill, with issue. John Knox of Greenwood Park, 
county Mayo, sixth son, born 3d November 1786, married 
Jane, daughter of Samuel Handy, Esq., with issue. 

Arthur Knox of Castlerea, second son of William Knox of 
Castlerea by his first wife Mary Palmer, served as liigh 
sheriff of county Mayo 1732-33. He married, 8th May 1724, 
Hannah, third daughter and co-heir of Francis Palmer, Esq. 
of Palmerstown, county Mayo, by Charity, his second wife, 
second daughter and co-heir of Maurice Annesley, Esq. of 
Little Path, county Kildare, nephew of Arthur, first Earl 


of Anglesey. He died 16th May 1743, leaving a daughter, 
Sydney, married to Matthew Vanghan of Carramore, and a 
son John. 

John Knox of Castlerea, son of Arthur Knox and Hannah 
Palmer, born 1728, was M.P. for Donegal from 1761 to 
1769, and for Castlebar from 1769 to 1774. He died 24th 
February 1774. His will, dated 16th February 1774, was 
proved 23d March following. Having married, 25th May 
1750, Anne, fourth daughter of the Eight Hon. Sir Henry 
King, Bart., by Isabella, his wife, sister of Eobert, Viscount 
Kings borough, and Edward, Earl of Kingston, he had by her 
two sons and three daughters. 

Arthur Knox, the elder son, born 13th September 1759, 
succeeded to the paternal estate, but established his residence 
at Woodstock, county Wicklow, an estate which he purchased 
from Lord St George. A magistrate of the counties of Mayo 
and Wicklow, he also filled in each the office of high sheriff. 
He died 23d October 1798. He married, 23d June 1781, 
Lady Mary Brabazon, eldest daughter of Anthony, eighth Earl 
of Meath, by whom he had issue, three sons and two daughters. 

John Knox, the eldest son, born 13th May 1783, suc- 
ceeded to his father's estate. He served as sheriff of Wick- 
low in 1809, and of Mayo in 1821, and died 31st December 
1861. Having married, 12th March 1808, Maria Anne, only 
daugliter of Major John Knox (who died 1st June 1861), 
he had issue, five sons. 

Arthur Edward Knox, the eldest son, born 28th December 
1808, at Holies Street, Dublin, is M.A. Oxon. and F.L.S. ; he 
is author of " Ornithological Eambles in Sussex," Lond., 
1849, 12mo; "Game Birds and Wild Fowl," Lond., 1850, 
8vo; and "Autumns on the Spey," Lond., 1872, 8vo. A 


retired officer of the 2d Life Guards, he resides at Trotton, 
ill the coiiuty of Sussex. He married, 12th December 
1835, Lady Jane Parsons, elder daughter of Laurence, 
second Earl of Eosse, with issue, two sons and three 
daughters. Lawrence Edward, the elder son, born 7th No- 
vember 1836, was captain, 63d and afterwards 11th Eegiment ; 
he died at Dublin in January 1873.' He married, 13th August 
1858, Clara Charlotte, second daughter of Major Ernest Knox 
of KiUala, county Mayo, and died in 1873 without issue. 
Arthur Henry Knox, second son, born in 1851, is a lieu- 
tenant in the Eoyal ISTavy. Maria, the eldest daughter, born 
1838, married, in 1875, Captain William Irvine, 3d Eegiment 
Alice, second daughter, born 26th August 1845, married, in 
1864, Colonel Horace Parker Newton, E.A. ; Helen, third 
daughter, born 1850, married, in 1869, G. J. Fletcher, Esq., 
18th Hussars, eldest son of John C. Fletcher, Esq. of Dale 
Park, Sussex. 

Ernest Knox, second son of John Knox of Castlerea and 
Maria Anne Knox, married, in 1861, Charlotte Catherine, 
daughter of James Knox Gore, Esq. of Broadlands Park, 
county Mayo, with issue. Eobert Augustus, third son, in 
holy orders, married, in 1842, Octavia Gertrude, youngest 
daughter of the late Eev. E. J. Hallifax, only son of Samuel 
Hallifax, Bishop of St Asaph, and died in 1876 without 
issue. Edward William John, the fourth son, was captain 
in the 75th Eegiment ; he was killed at the siege of Delhi, 
12th June 1857. In 1854 he married Charlotte Emily, 
daughter of Major Gardiner of Farm Hill, county Mayo, 
with issue. Alfred Charles, the fifth son, was captain, 73d 
Eegiment. He married, in 1855, Victoria Anne, daughter 
of Colonel Arthur Hunt, E.A., with issue. 


Edward Knox, second son of Arthur Knox of Castlerea 
and Woodstock, born 2d November 1786, was a colonel in 
the army ; he served in the Peninsular campaigns, and in 
action lost his right arm. Arthur, third son, born 2 2d 
November 1793, was in holy order's. He married, in 
November 1820, Mary, daughter of the Eight Hon. Denis 
Daly, and sister of the first Lord Dunsandle. 

John Knox, second son of John Knox of Castlerea and 
Anne King, born 10th March 1764, was major in the Sligo 
regiment of militia. He died 11th July 1821. He married, 
first, 24th December 1786, Eleanor Anne, eldest daughter of 
Erancis Knox, Esq. of Rappa Castle, county Mayo, and by 
her (who died 20th March 1790) had, with a daughter, Maria 
Anne, married to John Knox of Castlerea and Woodstock, 
two sons. John Erederick, the elder son, of Mount Falcon, 
C(Jiinty Mayo, " lieutenant-colonel of the Sligo Militia, was 
born 28th February 1789 ; he died in 1871. He married, 
28th January 1819, Anna Maria, eldest daughter of James 
Knox Gore, Esq. of Broadlands Park, county Mayo, with 
issue, seven sons and a daughter, Eleanor Louisa. Frederick 
Edgar, the eldest son, born 29 th April 1822, died unmar- 
ried, 28th October 1867. 

L^tred Augustus Knox, the second son, born 19th April 
1825, succeeded to the family estates on the death of his 
father. He served as high sheriff of Mayo in 1875-76. He 
married, in 1875, Agnes Frances Nina, daughter of the late 
Sir Francis A. Knox Gore, Bart, of Belleek Manor, and has 
issue. Albert Henry, third son, born 10th February 1827, 
married, 24th May 1855, Jane Harriett, eldest daughter of 
James A. Knox of Crosspatrick, county Mayo, with issue ; 
Alfred William, fourth son, born 5th May 1829; Alberic 


Edward, fifth son, born 17th September 1831, married, 
4th June 1868, Emily Adela, only daughter of Captain 
Betham of Myersville, county Dublin, and died in 1870, 
leaving a daughter; Ernest Adolphus, sixth son, was 
born 25th April 1834; and John Ethelred, seventh son, 
born 7th March 1836, was captain in the Sligo regiment of 

Francis Knox, second son of Major John Knox by his 
first wife Eleanor Anne Knox, was born in 1790, and died in 
1793. Major John Knox married, secondly, 14th April 
1811, Catherine, second daughter of Richard Chaloner, Esq. 
of Kingsfort, county Meath, and by her had tliree sons — 
Richard, Edward Chaloner, and Robert John ; also three 
daughters — Frances Maria, married W. P. Blunden, Esq. ; 
Eliza, married Sir John Blunden, Bart. ; and Catherine Anne, 
who died young. 

Richard Knox, eldest son of Major John Knox by his 
second marriage, was born 28th May 1812. Having served 
in the 15th and 18th Hussars, he is now major-general. He 
owns the lands of Gracedieu, county Dublin. In 1844 he 
married Mary Letitia, daughter of Colonel M*Master of the 
Indian Army, by whom he has issue, Mary Letitia, the 
eldest daughter, married J. Walsh, Esq. She and Catherine, 
second daughter, are both deceased. The surviving sons are 
— Richard, captain, 18th Hussars; Francis Robert Bonham, 
lieutenant, Hyderabad Cavalry Contingent ; Horace Chaloner, 
Royal Indian Civil Engineers ; Charles William, lieutenant, 
37th Regiment ; Eustace Chaloner, and Walter Frederic. 

Edward Chaloner Knox, D.L., county Tyrone, second son 
of Major John Knox by his second wife, was born 20th 
January 1815. He married, in 1856, Alice Hewitt Caroline, 


daughter of A. St George of Woodpark. Eobert John Knox, 
third son, captain, 6th Dragoon Guards, was born 1st Sep- 
tember 1817; he married Philippa Allen, daughter of F. 
Lindesay, D.L., of Longhry, county Tyrone, and has three 
sons and eight daughters. 

The family of Knox of Prehen, county Londonderry, is 
descended from the Scottish House of Eanfurlie. George 
Knox of Minnymore, county Donegal, had by his wife, Letitia 
AVray, two sons, Andrew and another. To the younger son 
was born a son George, who, entering the Church, became 
rector of Lifford. Letitia, daughter of the Rev. George 
Knox, married, 5th May 1797, Lieut. -Colonel Alexander 
Lawrence, governor of Upnor Castle, son of William Lawrence 
of Portrush, county Antrim. Of this marriage were born 
seven sons and five daughters. General Sir Henry Mont- 
gomery Lawrence, the fourth son, celebrated for his civil and 
military services in India, was mortally wounded at Luck- 
now, 2d July 1857. John Laird Mair, Baron Lawrence, 
G.C.B., a very distinguished officer, was appointed Viceroy of 
India in 1864, and in 1869 was created Baron Lawrence. 

Andrew Knox,. elder son of George Knox of Minnymore, 
owned the lands of RathmuUen, county Donegal. A colonel 
in the army, he, for twenty-seven years, represented the 
county Donegal in the Irish Parliament. He married, about 
1738, Honoria, daughter of Andrew Tomkins of Prehen, by 
whom he had a son, George, and a daughter, Mary Anne. 

The history of Mary Anne Knox presents a tragic page in 
the history of her house. John Macnaghten, descended 
from the thanes of Loch Tay in Scotland, owned the lands 
of Benvardon, in the neighbourhood of Prehen. Save a 
handsome person and agreeable manners, he had no other 


qualities which could command respect; he had ruined 
his estate through persistent gambling, thereby grieving to 
death an attached wife; and had, in holding a public 
office, forfeited confidence. Yet, by promises of amendment, 
he partially recovered some lost friendships, Mr Knox 
among others receiving visits from him. Mary Anne 
Knox, then about her fifteenth year, accepted his devoirs; 
and hoping to possess himself of her dowry of £6000, he 
pressed his suit vigorously. Meeting the young lady at 
Londonderry, he induced her, in the house of a relative, to 
make promise that she would marry him; she added the 
proviso, "if her father would consent." Not long after- 
wards Miss Knox felt bound to divulge the contract, and 
proceedings at law to render it null on account of her 
being under age were, by her father, instituted in the ecclesi- 
astical court at Londonderry, and afterwards in the Court of 
Delegates at Dublin. The latter court annulled the contract, 
while Mr Knox obtained a decree against Macnaghten for 
£500 as damages. Insisting that Miss Knox was bound to 
become his wife, Macnaghten vowed revenge. Aware that 
the family were in peril, Mr Knox resolved for a time to 
leave Prehen. Accordingly, on the morning of the 12th 
November 1761, he set out for Dublin in his carriage along 
with his wife and daughter. Several of his people followed 
the carriage on horseback armed. ]\Ir Knox had reached a 
place caUed Springwell Park, when Macnaghten rode up, 
and stopping the carriage by menacing the driver, discharged 
several pistols into its interior. Miss Knox was pierced with 
five balls in the left side ; she died that evening. Macnaghten 
and an accomplice effected their escape, but were afterwards 
captured, and, being tried fur murder, were condennied. 


They were hanged on • a plain between Strabane and Lifford 
on the 15th December.^ It is proper to add that according 
to another account Macnaghten was only convicted of man- 
slaughter, and subjected to two years' imprisonment. 

George Knox succeeded his mother in the lands of Prehen. 
Having married, in 1760, Jane, daughter of Thomas Mahon 
of Strokestown, county Eoscommon, and sister of Maurice, 
first Lord Hartland, he had by her four sons and two 
daughters. Thomas, the second son, in holy orders, married 
Helen, daughter of Eedmond Dillon, Esq. of Ashbrooke, 
county Dublin, and had two sons, George, born 1806, resident 
magistrate, county Sligo, and Thomas. 

Maurice Knox, third son of George Knox of Prehen, 
acquired the lands of Farn, county Eoscommon. He married 
Anne Maple, daughter of James Wilson of Derks, county 
Meath, by whom he had two sons and three daughters. 

George Knox, elder son of Maurice Knox of Farn, rector 
of Castle Blakeney, county Galway, married Frances, 

daughter of Holmes, wdth issue, a son Maurice, and a 

daughter Janet. Maurice Wilson, the second son, born 1805, 
purchased in 1862 the estate of Kilmannock in the county 
of Wexford. He married, in 1831, Elizabeth, daughter and 
heiress of Francis White, Esq. of Oldstone, county Antrim, 
with issue, a son, Francis William White, born 1848 ; also 
seven daughters. 

1 See a tliin volume entitled, " Some Autlientic Particulars of the Life of 
the late John Macnaghten, Esq. of Benvarden, who was executed in Ireland 
on Tuesday, the 15th of December, for the murder of Miss Mary Ann Knox, 
only daughter of Andrew Knox, Esq. of Prehen, representative in the late and 
present Parliament for the county of Donegal, compiled from papers com- 
municated by a gentleman in Ireland to a person of distinction of that king- 
dom, now residing here. London, i)rinted, and Dublin, rc-printed, by G. 
Faulkner, in Essex Street, mdcclxii." 


Alexander Knox, fourth son of George Knox of Prehen, 
captain, Donegal Militia, married Miss Lyneham, by whom 
he had a son William, who married his cousin Hannah, 
daughter of Maurice Knox of Farn. 

Andrew Knox, eldest son of George Knox of Prehen, 
succeeded to the family estate. Colonel of the Donegal 
Militia, he was M.P. in the Irish Parliament at the Union ; 
he died in 1840. By his wife Mary, daughter of Dominick 
MacCausland, Esq. of Daisy Hill, county Derry, he had five 
sons — George, his heir; Dominick, who died unmarried; 
Andrew, vicar of Birkenhead, honorary canon of Chester 
Cathedral, manied, with issue; Marcus, captain, RN.; and 
Thomas, married, with issue; also five daughters — Jane, 
maiTied Captain Hay, R.N. ; Honoria, married Rev. Charles 
Galway, Archdeacon of Derry; Mary, died unmarried; 
Caroline, married R. Eickards, Esq., Glengallow, Glamorgan- 
shire ; and Benjamina, married Captain Loeffel, Belgian 

George Knox, eldest son of Andrew Knox and Mary 
MacCausland, succeeded his father in the estate of Prehen in 
1840. He was captain in the 2d Dragoon Guards, and died 
in 1848. Having married, in 1827, Anna Maria, daughter of 
Robert Johnston, Q.C., of Magheramena, county Fermanagh, 
he had, with two daughters, a son George, now^ of Prehen, 
and lieutenant^colonel of the Londonderry Militia, born 1834. 

In his history of the county Down, the late Dr Alexander 
Knox of Strangford remarks that the earliest occurrence of the 
name of Knox in Ireland which he had seen was the signa- 
ture of Thomas Knox, appended to an inquisition held at 
Antrim on the 12th July 1605. Probably this early settler 
was the father of three brothers (traditionally of the Ren- 


frewsliire family of Eanfurlie), who about the year 1620 
settled as tenant-farmers on the lands of Ballyvennox, near 
Coleraine, in the county of Londonde'rry. One of these 
brothers, James Knox, who occupied the large mountain 
farm of Murder-Hole, died in 1660, leaving two sons, James 
and Eobert. James Knox, the elder son, who succeeded 
to his father's farm, distinguished himself by an act of 
daring. During the memorable siege of Londonderry in 1689, 
when the garrison was oppressed by famine, he, assisted by 
his two sons, conveyed a herd of cattle to Lough Foyle, 
opposite Culmore Fort, where the river is narrow, and on a 
dark night drove them at low tide along the " slob " or mud, 
introducing them into the city by the water-gate. James 
Knox died 1701. His brother, Eobert, volunteered into 
the (now) 3d Buffs, and was severely wounded at the battle 
of the Boyne. 

John Knox, son of James, second of ]\lurder-Hole, died in 
1740, leaving two sons. James, the elder son, succeeded to 
his father's lease. He married ]\Iary Boyd of Ballywillan, 
and died in 1778, leaving two sons, John and Eobert. 

Eobert Knox proceeded to America about 1780 ; he and 
descendants founded the important city of Knoxville, Ten- 

John Knox succeeded to his father's lease, and died in 
1798. By his wife, Anne, daughter of William M'Affee of 
Euglishtown, he had four sons. William, the eldest sou, was 
thirty-six years Presbyterian minister at Dunboe, county 
Londonderry. Possessed of high culture and elegant learn- 
ing, he enjoyed the intimacy of the Earl of Bristol, Lord 
Bishop of Derry, whose residence at Downhill was situated 
in his x^arish. He married Mary, daughter of the Eev. 


William Wright of Moueymore, and died in 1801, leaving 
four sons, Samuel, John, William, and Wright. 

Samuel Knox, the eldest son, adopted the legal profession, 
and was an eminent solicitor at Dublin. He died in 1855. 
By his wife, Sarah Edkins, he had a large family. William, 
the eldest son, sometime practised as a barrister ; he after- 
wards took orders in the Church. He died in 1840. He 
married Mary Kyle of Laurel Hill, with issue. 

Eobert Kyle Knox, his eldest son, is a director of the 
Northern Bank, Belfast. He married Sara, daughter of 
Captain Twigge, 60th Eifles, with issue. 

John Knox, J.P., second son of the Eev. William Knox, 
settled at Eushbrook, parish of Aghadowey, and county of 
Londonderry. He married Mary, daughter of Eobert Eice, 
Esq., Coleraine, and died in 1854, leaving five sons and seven 

Nathaniel Alexander Knox, the eldest son, born in 1797, 
w^as an officer in the naval service of the East India Company; 
he now resides at Portrush. By his wife, Ann Wall, he 
has had three sons, John, Nathaniel Alexander, and William 
Bevington; also four daughters, Henrietta, Sydney, Cecilia, 
and Mary. 

William James Knox, second son of John Knox, settled in 
Canada; he died in 1874. He married Cecilia, daughter of Wil- 
liam Kelly, Esq., of Lanarkshire, with issue, a daughter, Mary. 

Eobert Knox, third son, of Eushbrook, J.P., married, first, 
Marion, daughter of Major Walker, 5th Dragoon Guards; and 
secondly, Jane, daughter of William Henderson of Pres ; he 
died in 1876, without issue. 

John Samuel Knox, fourth son, Heutenant-colonel, 42d Ben- 
gal Native Infantry, distinguished himself in several import- 


aut engagements, and was severely wounded. He married 
Caroline, daughter of Eobert Lindsell, Esq., Bedfordshire, 
with issue, Eobert John, lieutenant, 86th Eegiment, and two 
daughters, Alice and Clara. 

Thomas, fifth son, is major-general, E.A. He married 
Mary Fynes Clinton, with issue, four sons, Welby, Harry, 
Arthur, and Cecil ; also a daughter, Ida Mary. 

Elizabeth, eldest daughter of John Knox of Eushbrook, 
married Eobert Hezlet of Bavagh, J.P., wdth issue, three sons, 
Eobert, John, and Eichard Jackson; also three daughters, 
Mary, Anna Arabella, and Elizabeth. 

Mary, second daughter, married James Buckingham Bev- 
ington, J.P., Bermondsey, London, with issue, two sons, 
Samuel Bourne, major, 10th Surrey Volunteers, and Geoffrey, 

Hester, third daughter, married George BarkKe, Esq., 
Mullamore, county Londonderry, with issue, three sons, 
Thomas, John Knox, and Archibald; also two daughters, 
Frances Jane and Mary. 

Sarah, fourth daughter, married Henry Jenkins, Esq., 
Liverpool, with issue, Henry (died young), Eobert, and Mary. 

Harriet, fifth daughter, married James Orr Lecky of Keely, 
county Londonderry. 

Jane, the sixth, and Eebecca, the seventh daughters, died 

William Knox, third son of the Eev. AYilliam Knox, died 
unmarried in 1872, aged ninety. 

Wright Knox, fourth son of the Eev. William Knox, cap- 
tain, 87th Fusiliers, was actively engaged in the Peninsular 
War, and was wounded at Tarifa and Talavera. Having held 
office in the government of the Ionian Isles, he was, on leav- 


ing Cephalonia, presented with a jewel-hilted sword, and a 
complimentary address. Wliile Captain Wright Knox was 
resident at Ithaca, Lord Byron was his guest for several 
days; he subsequently received from the noble poet the 
following letter, now for the first time printed : 

"Cepalonia, August 26, 1823. 

"My dear Sir, — I have to acknowledge your very kind and 
flattering letter, and am truly glad that you and Mrs K. have 
not been so tired of my company as I feared. The few days 
w^hich I passed with you in your beautiful island are amongst 
the whitest of my existence, and as such, I shall recollect 
them, not without the hope of our meeting again sometime 
and somewhere. I have given directions to Messrs Koniolegno 
(or Corialegno) to furnish the Moriote refugees with every 
necessary for their decent subsistence at my expense as 
before proposed by myself. I have also (as he may, or 
should have apprised you) directed two hundred and fifty 
dollars to be placed at your disposal for the other families 
now^ in Ithaca to be distributed to the most deserving or the 
most necessitous, in such proportions as your better experience 
and knowledge of their circumstances may suggest. The 
various demands upon me have made me limit the sum lower 
than I could wish, but it may be a little help to some in the 
meantime, and we may do more by and bye. 

" I hope that Mrs Knox has not suffered from her travels. 
She is the best and most intrepid craigswoman (as the Scotch 
call it) I have met with. Count P. Gamba and the rest of our 
party beg their best thanks and respects both to her and to 
you ; and uniting with them in every good wish, I ever am, 
your obliged and faithful servant, Noel Byron." 

Captain Wright Knox married Jane Gordon, sister of Sir 
Willoughby Gordon, quarter-master-general, and by her had 
two sons, Henry Torrens and Aston, officers in the Indian 


Army ; also three daughters. Georgina, second daughter, is 
wife of the Hon. Henry P. Barrington. 

Hugh Knox, of the family of Eanfurlie, settled at the close 
of the seventeenth century in the parish of Donagheady, 
county Londonderry, where he died in 1752. His son, Gus- 
tavus Knox, also resided at Donagheady, and there died in 
1795, leaving a son, Hugh, who, in 1815, purchased a small 
estate in the parish of Urney, county Tyrone ; he there died 
in 1852, aged eighty-six. One of his sons, the Eev. Eobert 
Knox, D.D., has, since 1843, occupied a prominent place as 
minister of a Presbyterian church at Belfast. 

At Dromore, in the county of Down, John Knox, of the 
family of Eanfurlie, purchased a portion of land early in 
the seventeenth century. His son, Alexander, who owned 
the lands of Eden Hill, near Dromore, left two sons, John 
and George. George, the second son, went to Jamaica about 
the year 1798, and there attained a considerable position. As 
a West Indian proprietor, merchant, and shipowner, in part- 
nership with the late Sir Simon Clark, he latterly settled 
in London. He married Letitia, daughter of Dr Andrew 
Greenfield, rector of Hillsborough (who assisted Bishop 
Percy in editing his "Eeliques of Ancient Poetry"), and 
by her had a numerous family, of whom only survived two 
sons, George and Alexander Andrew. George, the elder 
surviving son, M.A. of Cambridge, was formerly H.E.I.C.'s 
Chaplain at Madras ; since 1871 he has been vicar of Exton, 
in the county of Eutland. He married a daughter of the late 
Dr P. F. Eeynolds. His eldest son, George, is magistrate at 
Allahabad, and a justice of the peace for the North- West 
Provinces of Bengal. He is author of " The Criminal Law 
of the Bengal Presidency," 2 vols. 8vo. 


Alexander Andrew Knox, younger surviving son of George 
Knox and Letitia Greenfield, is a barrister-at-law, and was 
lately a police magistrate of the metropolis. He married 
a daughter of the late James Armstrong, Esq., a civilian of 

John, elder son of Alexander Knox of Eden Hill, inherited 
the family estate, and had (with several daughters) two sons, 
Alexander and George. Alexander, the elder son, entered 
the medical profession, and became a surgeon in the Eoyal 
Navy; he afterwards held a Government appointment in 
Ireland. He published " An Enquiry into the Actual State 
of our Knowledge of Cholera," Dublin, 1849, 16mo; "The 
Existing State of our Knowledge of Vaccination," London, 
1850, 8vo; "Irish Watering Places," Dublin, 1845, 8vo; 
and "A History of the County Down," Dublin, 1875, 8vo. 
He died at Beechcroft, Belfast, on the 9th November 1877. 
George Knox, younger son, resides at Hillsborough ; he has 
two sons, the Eev. Eobert Dalzell Knox, vicar of Saint- 
field, county Down; and John Alexander Knox of Mayo 
House, Lisburn. The latter has two sons, Alexander Cecil 
Eogers and George William. 

Colonel Charles Knox of Castle Lacken, and deputy- 
lieutenant of county Mayo, married, 18th May 1839, Lady 
Louisa Catherine, eldest daughter of Howe Peter, second 
Marquis of Sligo, with issue. Dying in 1867, he was 
succeeded by his eldest son, Charles Howe CufiP Knox, 
who, being educated at Harrow and Christ Church, Oxford, 
entered the army, and became captain of the 8th Hussars. 
He is deputy-lieutenant of county, Mayo, and in 1873 held 
tlie office of high sheriff. He married, 30th May 1869, 
Henrietta Elizabeth, second daughter of the TdfAit Hon. Sir 


William Gibson-Craig, Bart, of Eiccarton, and has a son, 
Charles William Cuff, born 1870. 

Descended from a family which emigrated to America from 
the neighbourhood of Belfast early in the eighteenth century 
was Henry Knox, major-general in the revolutionary army. 
Born on the 25th July 1750, he was apprenticed to a 
bookseller at Boston ; he subsequently commenced business 
in the same city. When war with the mother country broke 
out, he was appointed, in his tw^enty-fifth year, a colonel of 
artillery. During the progress of the war he greatly dis- 
tinguished himself, and gained the esteem and confidence of 
General Washington. On the termination of hostihties he 
was appointed Secretary of War. He died on the 25th 
October 1806. Major-General Knox was remarkable for 
his literary tastes and religious earnestness.^ 

A deep and correct thinker, a powerful and elegant writer, 
and a brilliant conversationist, Alexander Knox was born at 
Londonderry in 1759. Possessing a delicate constitution, and 
inheriting a moderate competency, he seems not to have 
chosen a profession ; but for some years, prior to the political 
union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1800, he acted as 
private secretary to Lord Castlereagh. By that nobleman he 
was advised to seek the representation of his native city in 
the Imperial Parliament, and his election might have been 
secured, but he preferred a private station, apart from political 
conflict. In early life he enjoyed the friendship of the 
celebrated John Wesley. He afterwards became the friend 
and correspondent of Dr John Jebb, Bishop of Limerick. 
In 1799 he issued a volume of "Essays on the Poli- 

^ Life and Correspondence of Henry Knox, Major-General, by Francis S. 
Drake. Boston, 1873, 8vo. 



tical Circumstances of Ireland." He died at his resi- 
dence in Dawson Street, Dublin, in June 1831, in his 
seventy-third year. His "Correspondence with Bishop 
Jebb" was published in 1834, in two octavo volumes; 
and in 1834-37, his literary " Kemains," in four volumes 

Members of the Scottish House of Knox of Kanfurlie 
effected settlements throughout the western counties. Among 
the parishioners of Kilmaronock, Dumbartonshire, decreed on 
the 26th February 1528, by the Lords of Council, to pay to 
the Abbot and convent of Cambuskenneth, certain quantities 
of grain and fodder, is named Christian Knox, for " the teynd 
schavis of the landis of Caldowene, extending to xii bollis of 
aittis with the fodder." ^ 

Janet Hall, vdfe of Mr WilHam Knokis, burgess of Een- 
frew, died in September 1568. She names her sons Adam, 
Andrew, and David as her executors, and appoints William 
Wallace of Ellerslie and Sir Thomas Knox " her superiors " 
for superintending the welfare of her children.^ 

Hew Knox, in Dryissill, in the sheriffdom of Ayr, died on 
the 15th July 1595. By his will, executed six days preced- 
ing his decease, in presence of his sons Hew and Eobert, and 
of his brother Eobert, he appointed his wife, Janet Homill, 
and Hew, his eldest son, as his executors. He bequeathed 
his part of the gear to be divided among Bessie, John, Janet, 
and Margaret Knox, his children. To his son Eobert he 
bequeathed half an acre of land. His inventory consists 
chiefly of farm stocking.^ 

1 Reg. Monas. de Monas. S. Marie de Cambuskenneth, Edinb. 1872, 4to, 
pp. 219-221. 
'Edinb. Cora. Reg., vol. i. ^ Ibid., voL xxxiii. 


Margaret Knox, wife of Mcoll Smyth, in Windyhouse, 
parish of St Quivox, Ayrshire, died on the 26th March 1602. 
Her inventory amounted to £569, which she bequeathed for 
division among her children, Marion, Eobert, Duncan, and 
Janet. William Knox, burgess in Ayr, is named as one of 
her executors.^ 

In the latter part of the seventeenth century, members of 
the family of Knox were resident in the parish of Kilbirnie, 
Ayrshire. Robert Knox, farmer in Paddockholme, is in the 
year 1691 named in the Baptismal Eegister of Kilbirnie 
parish. James Knox, farmer, first in the parish of Dairy, and 
latterly at Paddockholme, died 31st January 1792. His sons, 
Hugh, James, and Eobert, married, and had issue. Hugh, 
born 30th September 1754, rented the farm of Lochside in 
Kilbirnie parish, and there died on the 3d February 1824. 
He had two sons. James, the elder, born 12th October 1783, 
held the lease of Tennox farm at Kilbirnie; he died 7th 
November 1840, leaving a son, John. Eobert, the younger 
son, born 11th November 1787, died 29th May 1821. 

James Knox, second son of James Knox, farmer at Paddock- 
holme, was born 28th June 1761, and died 20th November 
1831, leaving William, born 20th April 1788 ; Eobert, born 
9th May 1797; and James, born 22d October 1800. These 
all married with issue. 

Eobert Knox, tliird son of James Knox in Paddockholme, 
was born 10th July 1763, and died 12th May 1821. By 
his wife Agnes Barclay he had, with several daughters, six sons, 
who reached manhood — William, Eobert, James, John, Hugh, 
and Thomas. William, the eldest son, born 28th Novem- 
ber 1802, was partner in the important firm of W. & J. Knox, 

^ Edinb. Com. Reg., vol. xxxviii. 


thread manufacturers, Kilbirnie. His son, Eobert William 
Knox, born 12th April 1845, is of Moor Park, Kilbirnie. 

Eobert, second son of Eobert Knox and Agnes Barclay, 
was born 25th May 1805 ; he married, with issue. James, 
third son, born 24th April 1807, was junior partner in the 
firm of W. & J. Knox. He married, 4th August 1829, 
Margaret Dickie, by whom he had, among others who died 
young, a son George, born 25th July 1837, who married, 2d 
June 1859, Jane Kerr Muir, with issue. James Knox married, 
secondly, 25th June 1844, Janet Muir, by whom he had two 
sons and three daughters. 

John, fourth son, a manufacturer in Glasgow, was born 
12th March 1809. He married, 11th November 1844, 
Isabella Inglis, with issue, two sons and two daughters. 
Hugh, fifth son, was born 4th February 1811. Thomas, 
sixth and youngest son, born 18th April 1813, died on the 
23d September 1829.^ 

Michael Knox, burgess of Eenfrew, died in August 1605, 
and his wife, Helen Knox, in February 1606. Their testament- 
dative was given up by Thomas Knox, burgess of Eenfrew, 
as nearest of kin to Uchred, Adam, and Michael Knox, sons 
of the deceased. The inventory, consisting chiefly of building 
materials, was valued at £310, 6s. 8d.2 

In January 1646 Mr John Knox was appointed master of 
the grammar school of Paisley, an office which he soon 
afterwards resigned.^ 

Early in the fifteenth century a branch of the family of 

1 From a Genealogy of the Family of Knox of Kilbirnie, compiled in 1855 
by William Logan, Privately printed. 
- Edinb. Com. Keg., vol. xliii. 
' History of Paisley Grammar School, Paisley, 1875, 8vo. 


Knox of the county of Eenfrew engaged in merchandise at 

In the charters of St Giles's Church, Adam de Knokkis is 
named as a bailie or magistrate of the city in 1428, and as 
deceased in 1445. David Knokkis, burgess of Edinburgh, is 
mentioned in 1447 and 1454. In 1492 we find that William 
Knox, son and heir of the late William Knox, was made 
a burgess. Another William Knokkis died in 1535-6.^ 

William Knox, burgess of Edinburgh, died in September 
1572. In his will he names his wife, Janet Eichardson; his 
inventory was valued at £1509, 13s.^ 

John Knox, merchant burgess of Edinburgh, died on the 
24th September 1606. His personal estate, valued at 
£939, lis. Id., he bequeathed to his sister, Catherine Knox, 
and her husband, James Brown.^ 

David Knox, maltman burgess of Edinburgh, died 14th 
May 1612. In his will he names his children, Elizabeth, 
Margaret, Janet, and Beatrice. His personal estate, deduct- 
ing debts, was valued at £136, 4s, 8d.* 

From Edinburgh members of the Knox family seem to 
have migrated into the rural districts. Thomas Knox, in 
Masterton, parish of Newbattle, Edinburghshire, died Novem- 
ber lo97> his testament-dative being presented by his wife, 
Isobel Spens, on behalf of their sons, John and Alexander. 
His personal estate was valued at £549, 13s. 4d., with debts 
due to him amounting to £136, 13s. 4d.^ 

James Knox, farmer, Gairmuir, Lauderdale, died in June 

1 Bannatyne Club volume, St Giles's Charters, p. 235, quoted by Dayid 
Laing, LL.D. ; Knox's Works, Edinb. 1864, 8vo, preface xv. 

2 Edinb. Com. Reg., vol. ii. ' Ihid., vol. xlii. 

* Ihicl, vol. xlvii. ^ Ihid., vol. xxxi. 


1573. In his will he names his children, Eobert and Agnes. 
His inventory is valued at £241, 13s. 4d.^ 

Gilbert Knox in the Buss [Bush], parish of Ayton, and 
county of Berwick, died on the 21st July 1596. In his will 
he appoints his eldest son William as one of his executors. 
His estate is valued at £980, 18s. His wife, Isobel 
Richardson, died in January 1595 ; she names in her will 
her sons, William, Andrew, and John.^ 

Of that branch of the Knox family which settled in Hadding- 
tonshire we have no particulars prior to the time of the 
Eeformer. "William Knox in Morham," and his wife, 
Elizabeth Schortes, were, on the 18th February 1598, infeft 
in subjects in Nungate of Haddington, in virtue of a crown 
charter.^ William Knox died in October 1607, and his 
testament-dative was produced by his widow on behalf of 
their children, William, George, James, and Bessy, minors. 
"James Knox," brother of the deceased, is named as a debtor; 
and the personal estate, chiefly in farm stock, is valued at 

A portion of the parish churchyard of Morham is stiU 
known as the Knox burying-ground. Of two family tomb- 
stones the older commemorates "Agnes Knox, daughter to 
Adam Knox and Janet Butler, who departed this life February 
26, 1714 years, and of her age 14 years." The other, an altar 
stone, has the following legend : " This is the burying-place 
of William Knox, tenant in Whittingham Mains. Here 
lies Jane Black, spouse to William Knox, who died 2d 
December 1756, aged 65 years ; and William Knox, her 

^ Edinb. Com. Reg., voL xii. , ' Ihid.^ voL xxix. 

3 M'Crie's Life of Knox, Edinb. 1818, vol. i., p. 339. 
* Edinb. Com. Reg., vol. xxix. 



Imsband, who died 9th March 1783, aged 81 years. Like- 
wise, Catherine, daughter of William Knox and Jean Thom- 
son, who died 16th January 1790, aged 23 years." 

In March 1562, John Knox the Eeformer addressed the 
Earl of Bothwell in these words : " Albeit, that to this hour 
it hath not chaunsed me to speak with your lordship face to 
face, yet have I borne a good mynd to your house, and have 
bene sorry at my heart of the trubles that I have heard you 
to be involved in. For, my lord, my grandfather, goodsher, 
and father have served your lordshipis predecessors, and some 
of thame have died under their standardis." ^ 

The grandfather and great-grandfather of James Hepburn, 
fourth Earl of Bothwell, held lands in the counties of Edin- 
burgh and Haddington, and both engaged in military affairs. 
Adam, second earl, fought at Elodden in September 1513, 
and in leading the reserve, consisting of the men of Hadding- 
shire, lost his life. Lord Hales, afterwards first Earl of Both- 
well, accompanied the rebel nobles at the battle of Sauchie- 
burn, fought on the 11th June 1488. Since his father and 
his father's father, and his "goodsher," or maternal grand- 
father, served under the standards of the Earls of Bothwell, 
it is probable that the Keformer's father was present at 
Elodden, and that one or both of his grandfathers had fallen at 
Sauchieburn. There is, therefore, no inconsiderable ground 
for believing that the Knox family were settled in Hadding- 
tonshire prior to 1488, the date of the battle of Sauchie- 

The Eeformer's father was William Knox. His Christian 

^ The expression "goodsher," used by the Reformer immediately after the 
word grandfather, would imply that he refeiTed to his maternal grandfather, 
a member of the House of Sinclair. 


name we obtain from two entries in the municipal records of 
Geneva. After the birth of his son Nathaniel, John Knox, 
on the 24th June 1558, sought and obtained the privilege of 
becoming a burgess of Geneva.^ In the Eegister of the Petit 
Conseil of Geneva, he is thus described : 

" Jehan Knoxe, filz de Guillaume Cnoxe descosse en Angle- 
terre, ministre Anglois en ceste Cite, suivant leur requeste ont 
este receux en bourgeoix de ceste Cite, gratis ; ayant un. filz 
masle nomme Nathanael." The description, " Jehan filz de 
Guillaume Cnoxe, natif de Hedington en Escosse," is repeated 
in the Burgess Eegister. The name William is suggestive, 
for we learn from the charters of St Giles's church formerly- 
quoted, that in the fifteenth century it was common in the 
Knox family at Edinburgh. 

William Knox, the Reformer's father, had two sons, William 
and John. As he bore his father's Christian name, and 
inherited the more substantial portion of the paternal inherit- 
ance, William was no doubt the elder son. He first appears 
as a merchant at Preston, now an inconsiderable seaport, 
but then a place of considerable trade. While conducting 
business as a merchant, he was occasionally employed in 
political affairs. In a letter to Thomas Bishop, dated from 
Douchal, 11th April 1547, the Earl of Glencairn remarks 
that he was prevented by sickness from keeping his first diet 
at Glencairn, having just succeeded to the title, but that 
he intended to be there on the 27th. He adds that he must 
first see his friends in the Castle of St Andrews — " quhil 
[until] then I haif halden William Knox, that he may adver- 
tize you thereafter of our purpose in that behalf." ^ John 

^ Knox's Works, Laing's ed., vol. vi., preface xvii. 
' From the original in the Public Record Office. 


Knox entered the Castle of St Andrews the day before this 
letter was written.^ 

In a letter from the Earl of Arran, Eegent of Scotland, 
to Edward VI., dated 24th February 1551-2, are sought 
" letters of saulf conduct and sure passport, in dew forme, to 
our lovit Williame Knox in Prestoun, and thrie factouris or 
attornayis for him, togedder with six persons with him in 
cumpany, saulflie and surelie to cum within your realme of 
England, . . . (with merchandise), and to sell the same 
to the lieges of youre realme ; and in lykwyis to by from thame 
all kynd of gudis and merchandice lawfuU." ^ In September 
1552, William Knox received a patent from the English 
Privy Council, granting him liberty, for a limited period, to 
trade to any part of England, in a vessel of one hundred tons 
burthen.^ In 1553 the Eeformer writes from Newcastle to 
Mrs Bowes, " My brother hath communicat his haill hart with 
me, and I persave the michtie operation of God." In another 
letter of the same year he writes, "My brother, William 
Knox, is presentlie with me. What ye wald haif frome Scot- 
land, let me knaw this Monunday at nyght, for he must 
depart on Tyisday." * In his " History," the Eeformer mentions 
that in July or August 1559, Lord Seyton, the Provost of 
Edinburgh, "brak a chaise upoun [pursued] Alexander 
Quhitela^v, as he came from Prestoun, accumpaneit with 
Williame Knox, towartis Edinburgh, and ceassit not to persew 
him till he came to the toun of Ormestoun : And this he did, 
supposing that the said Alexander Quhitelaw had bene 
Johnne Knox." ^ In his will, executed in^l572, the Eeformer 

^ Knox's Works, vi, preface Ixxv. 

' Original in Public Record OflBce. ' Strype's Memorials, vol. ii., p. 299. 

^ Knox's Works, vol. iii., pp. 356, 361. 

5 Ibid., vol. i., pp. 392, 393. 


names his " bruder, Williame Knox, and his airis quhatsum- 

William Knox, merchant, Preston, was father of three sons, 
William, Paul, and John. William Knox, the eldest son, was 
in 1567 minister of the parishes of Cockpen and Carrington, 
in the county of Edinburgh. As stipend he had £120, with 
manse and glebe. He subscribed the articles authorised by 
the Synod, and was, by the Superintendent of Lothian, in 
March 1572, presented to the General Assembly. In 1574 
he received in further charge, the churches of Clerkingtoun 
and Temple, readers being appointed in each of the four 
parishes. He was, on the 15th December 1580, presented to 
the vicarage. He died in April 1592, leaving two sons, 
William, his successor, and James, minister at Kelso.^ 

William Knox, elder son of William Knox, minister of 
Cockpen^ entered St Leonard's College, 10th December 1586, 
and graduated in the University of St Andrews in 1589. In 
the same year he was admitted colleague and successor to his 
father. On the 14th June 1617, he subscribed the Protesta- 
tion in support of the Liberties of the Kirk, and died in 1623, 
about the age of fifty-four. He left in MS. '* Common 
Places in Theology," in Latin, two vols. 4to. He married, 
first, a daughter of Rigg of Carberry, by whom he had three 
sons, John, William, and Nicol ; secondly, EUzabeth, 
daughter of John Haliburton of Muirhouslaw, with issue, 
three sons, Andrew, Patrick, and Simon.^ 

John, eldest son of the Rev. William Knox and Rigg, 

graduated at the University of Edinburgh 28th July 1610, 

1 Fasti Eccl. Scot., i. 271 ; Knox's Works, edited by David Laiug, Edinb. 
1864, 8vo, vol. vi., Ixxvii. 
' Fasti Eccl. Scot., i. 272. 


and was, 13th April 1619, admitted colleague and successor 
to the minister of Carrington, Edinburghshire. He died 
before the 18th July 1661. By his wife, Isobel Douglas, who 
died in November 1664, he had a son John, who was licensed 
8th February 1649, and was ordained colleague to his father 
31st October 1653. He died 21st November 1659, without 


William Knox, second son of the Eev. William Knox and 
— Eigg, was a bookbinder in Edinburgh. He married and 

had three sons, James, Eobert, and Henry. 

James Knox, the eldest son, born 1630, graduated at the 
University of Edinburgh 15th July 1650. He was, in 1662 
ordained minister of Bowden, Eoxburghshire, and died 24th 
August 1680.2 

Eobert Knox, second son of William Knox, bookbinder, 
was a writer in Edinburgh. He married and had a son 
James, who was baptized 16th August 1668 ; he studied at the 
University of Edinburgh, where he graduated 9th July 1688. 

Licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Linlithgow about 
1696, James Knox was, on the 2d September 1697, ordained 
minister of Dunino, Eifeshire. He died on the 16th May 1740, 
in his seventy-second year. He married, 24th April 1700, 
Margaret Woddrop, by whom he had a son, William, and ten 
daughters. Helen, the eldest daughter, was baptized 28th 
March 1701, and died in infancy; Margaret, second daughter, 
was baptized 21st April 1702, and died 1783 ; Christian, 
third daughter, was baptized 25th July 1704; Anna, fourth 
daughter, was baptized 27th March 1706; Janet, fifth 
daughter, was baptized 19th July 1709; Helen (second of 

1 Fasti Eccl. Scot., i. 269, 270. 

2 Fasti Eccl. Scot, i. 545; Knox MS. Genealogy; Tombstone Inscription. 


the name), sixth daughter, was baptized 10th October 1710 ; 
Jean, seventh daughter, was baptized 17th May 1713; Mag- 
dalen, eighth daughter, was baptized 24th August 1715; 
Christian, ninth daughter, was baptized 9th April 1717 ; and 
Elizabeth, tenth daughter, was born 19th September 1720.^ 

William Knox, only son of Mr James Knox, minister of 
Dunino, was baptized 10th January 1708.^ He became a 
licentiate of the Church.^ 

Henry Knox, third son of William Knox, bookbinder, 
baptized 9th May 1641, graduated at the University of Edin- 
burgh 18th July 1664. To the Privy Council he complained, 
6th January 1676, that six or seven persons had, on the pre- 
ceding 28th December, entered his house and assailed him 
and his wife, and plundered their household furniture. He 
entered a burgess of Edinburgh 11th December 1678. After 
ministering at Dunscore, Dumfriesshire, he succeeded his 
brother James, in the incumbency of Bowden in 1681. He 
was deprived by the Privy Council, 10th September 1689, 
for not reading the Proclamation of the Estates, and not 
praying for their majesties William and Mary. He died at 
Edinburgh, 27th December 1716. He had a son who be- 
came minister of the island of St Christopher.* 

Nicol, third son of Mr William Knox, minister of Cockpen, 
by his first wife, was chamberlain to the Lords Cranstoun ; 
he died without issue. 

Andrew Knox, eldest son of Mr William Knox of Cockpen, 
by his second wife, Elizabeth Haliburton, a licentiate of the 
Church, and tutor in the family of Murray of Philiphaugh, 

^ Fasti Eccl. Scot., ii. 423 ; Dunino Parisli Register. 

2 Dunino Parisli Register. ' Fasti Eccl. Scot., ii. 423. 

* Knox MS. Genealogy; Fasti Eccl. Scot., i. pp. 545^579. 



died unmarried. Patriok, the second son, was secretary to 
tlie Earl of Craven, ambassador-extraordinary to Holland, 
and was by his lordship recommended to the states of 
Zealand, as factor for their possessions in India. He died 
without issue, leaving a fortune to his younger brother, Simon.^ 

Simon Knox, youngest son of the Eev. William Knox, 
minister of Cockpen, by his second wife, Elizabeth Halibur- 
ton, graduated at the University of Edinburgh in July 1643. 
He was admitted minister of Girthon, in the Stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, in 1666, and continued till 29th October 
1667. He married Isabella, daughter of Mr Eobert David- 
son, minister of Stenton, by his wife Catherine Eamsay, 
niece of Sir John Eamsay, Earl of Holderness, a chief agent 
in preserving the life of James VI. on the occasion of the 
Gowrie conspiracy. 

William Knox, only son of Mr Simon Knox and Isabella 
Davidson, was, on the 13th December 1704, ordained 
minister of Dairsie, Fifeshire. He died 25th April 1746. 
'By his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Bethune of Blebo, Fifeshire 
(died 25th April 1746), he had seven sons and five daughters. 
John, the eldest son, baptized 10th January 1708, was a 
surgeon in India ; he married and had two daughters. Eliza- 
beth, elder daughter, married Andrew Duncan, M.D., Edin- 
burgh, by whom she had five sons and seven daughters. 
Andrew, M.D., the eldest son, married, and had two 
daughters; John, the second son, died young. Alexander, 
third son, a general in the Indian Army, resided at Gattonside 
House, Melrose ; he married with issue, seven sons and five 
daughters. John, fourth son, colonel in the Indian Army, 
married without issue; he died at Edinburgh in 1856. 
1 Fasti Eccl. Scot., i. 383, 713; Knox MS. Genealogy. 


Henry Francis, fifth son, died young. Catherine, eldest 
daughter, died young ; Elizabeth, second daughter, resided at 
Edinburgh ; Janet, third daughter, died young ; Margaret, 
fourth daughter, married William Scott, Writer to the Signet, 
Edinburgh — issue three sons and two daughters ; Catherine, 
fifth daughter, died at Edinburgh in 1854; Henrietta, sixth 
daughter, died young; Ann Calderwood Durham, seventh 
daughter, died at Edinburgh in 1856.^ Mary, second daughter 

of John Knox, surgeon, married Laidlaw, by whom she 

had a son who died without issue. 

Henry, second son of William Knox, minister of Dairsie, 
baptized 2 2d December 1710, was a merchant at Dunbar, 
Haddingtonshire; he married a daughter of Cheape of Eossie, 
Fifeshire, by whom he had a son William, merchant in 
Gottenburg, and James, lieutenant, E.N. 

William, fourth son of Mr William Knox, minister of 
Dairsie, was baptized 5th March 1714. A merchant at Dun- 
bar, he married Telfer, from Lanarkshire, and died 

without issue. George, fifth son, baptized 8th February 1716, 
was a physician, and practised at Eichmond, Surrey ; Eobert, 
sixth son, baptized 26th February 1722, seems to have died 
young. David, the seventh son, baptized 3d November 1723, 
died a bachelor. 

Alison, the eldest daughter, was baptized 13th February 
1709 ; Christian, the second daughter, was baptized 6th July 
1718; Elizabeth, third daughter, was baptized 23d September 
1721 ; Margaret, fourth daughter, was baptized 7th October 
1725; and Elizabeth, fifth daughter (second of the name), 
was baptized 15th December 1727.^ 

^ Rev. David Crawford's Notes. 

' Knox MS. Genealogy ; Dairsie Baptismal Register. 


James Knox, third son of Mr William Knox, minister of 
Dairsie, was baptized 13th April 1712. Licensed to preach 
by the Presbytery of Peebles, 18th October 1738, he was, 
15th August 1754, ordained minister of Scone, Perthshire. 
He died on the 17th December 1776, aged sixty-eight. He 
married, 21st January 1756, Elizabeth, daughter of the Eev. 
Thomas Shaw, one of his predecessors (died 26th February 
1792), and by her had five sons and three daughters. 
William, the eldest son, baptized 24th July 1759, relinquished 
the medical profession and became a merchant in India. 
Thomas, second son, baptized 28th April 1763, was a lawyer; 
he died unmarried. John, third son, baptized 10th March 
1766, adopted the nautical profession; he sailed from Calcutta 
as chief mate of a ship bound for Busserata, in the Persian 
Gulf; it was never heard of after sailing from the coast of 
Coromandel. James, fourth son, was baptized 20th July 
1768; and Thomas, fifth son, was baptized 5th April 1770. 

Of the three daughters of Mr James Knox, minister of 
Scone, Charlotte, baptized 17th January 1758, died in 1838 ; 
Margaret, baptized 18th October 1764, died in 1831; Elizabeth, 
the eldest daughter, baptized 12th November 1756, married 
John Home, surveyor, Edinburgh, and died in 1819, leaving 
five sons and four daughters. William, the eldest son. 
Captain, 86th Eegimeut, married Hopewell Glenny, with issue, 
Isaac William, an officer in the 34th Eegiment, and Maria 
Glenny, who married Andrew George Malcolm, M.D., Belfast 
(died 1856), with issue, one son, who died in infancy. John, 
the second son, died in 1806 ; Patrick Carnegie, the third 
son, an officer in the 86th regiment, died at Trincomalee, 
Ceylon, in 1819 ; James, M.D., fourth son, died in 1834 ; 
Andrew Duncan, fifth son, died in 1819. Elizabeth, the 


eldest daughter, married the Eev. John Johnston, Edinburgh, 
with issue, two daughters. Eliza, the elder daughter, married 
the Eev. Finlay MTherson, by whom she has had one son 
and two daughters ; Charlotte, the younger, married the Rev. 
David Purves, Maxwelton, with issue, a son and daughter. 

Mary Findlater, second daughter of John Home, by his 
wife, Elizabeth Knox, died in 1800 ; Charlotte, third daughter, 
died in 1842 ; Margaret, fourth daughter, married the Rev. 
David Crawford, Edinburgh — issue two sons, William, Com- 
mercial Bank, Leith, who married Bethia Innes Gavin ; and 
John Knox, Solicitor of the Supreme Court, Edinburgh. 
Also, a daughter, Elizabeth, who died in infancy.^ 

James Knox, younger son of Mr "William Knox, minister 
of the parishes of Cockpen and Carrington, studied at the 
University of Edinburgh, where he graduated 28th July 1596. 
He was elected a regent in the University of Edinburgh, 2d 
June 1598, and in 1605 was ordained minister of Kelso. By 
the General Assembly, held at Linlithgow in 1606, he was 
appointed perpetual moderator of the presbytery, and by the 
Privy Council the presbytery were charged to receive him as 
such under pain of rebellion. They resisted at their first 
meeting, but after a second charge accepted his nomination. 
He demitted before the 24th June 1633, and died in the 
following August. A portion of Kelso Abbey he used as a 
residence, one vault serving as a kitchen, and another as a 
bed-chamber ; these were both under the level of the ground. 
By his wife, Martha Borthwick, he had three sons, Robert, 
William, and James, who was baptized 4th November 1611. 
Also four daughters — Martha, baptized 31st May 1608 ; 
Elizabeth, baptized 17th September 1612 ; Rachel, baptized 
^ Eev. David Crawford's Notes on the Family of Knox. 


2d June 1616; Agnes, baptized 7tli October 1617; and 
Jean, baptized 16th December 1618.^ 

Eobert Knox, eldest son of Mr James Knox, minister of 
Kelso, baptized 30th December 1606, graduated at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh 23d July 1625. Licensed to preach 
December 1631, he succeeded his father as minister of Kelso, 
30th July 1633. He preached before Parliament on the 8th 
August, and before the king on the 12th September 1641. 
In 1654 he suffered imprisonment for naming the king in 
his prayers. He died at Edinburgh on the 15th May 1658. 
To the accommodation in the abbey possessed by his father he 
added two galleries, one as a place of study, the other as a 
bed-chamber. He married first, in March 1638, Margaret, 
sister of John Ker of Lochtour; secondly, 15th June 1643, 
Elizabeth, second daughter of Sir John jMurray of Philip- 
haugh, who, in consideration of her husband's loyalty, ob- 
tained on the 22d March 1661 an Act of Parliament, conferring 
on her and her children the vacant stipend after his decease. 
By his second wife, Mr Eobert Knox had two sons, Eobert 
and John, and a daughter Joane.^ 

Paul Knox, second son of William Knox, merchant, Pres- 
ton, is, in the will of his uncle, the Eeformer, named thus : 
" Item, I leif to Paule Knox, my bruder sone, ane hundreth 
pundis, quhilk lyis in wodset upoune Eobert Campbellis lands 
in Kynzeancleucht, and quhairin the said Paule is ellis infeft, 
and that to be ane help to hald him at the senilis." Paul 
Knox studied at St Salvator's College, St Andrews, where, in 
1571, he obtained his degree of B.A., followed by that of 
Master. In 1574 he was ordained minister of Kelso, the 

1 Fasti Eccl. Scot., i. 455; Kelso Parish Reg.; Knox's Works, edited by- 
David Laing, vol. vi., p. Ixxvii. ' Fasti Eccl. Scot., ii. 456. 


parishes of Eclnam and Mackerstan being also placed under 
his care. He continued till 1st May 1575, and probably died 
about this period, as his name does not re-appear.^ 

John Knox, third son^ of William Knox at Preston, 
/Studied at the University of St Andrews, where he graduated 
in 1575. In 1576 he was admitted to the pastoral charge of 
Lauder, and in 1584 was translated to Melrose. By the 
Privy Council he was, on the 6th March 1589, named one of 
the commissioners " for the preservation of true religion " in 
the sheriffdom of Edinburgh. In 1596 he was one of the 
commissioners for the south appointed to meet with the 
Presbytery of Edinburgh to consult respecting the means 
necessary for opposing the measures of the excommunicated 
Popish earls and their supporters. In the General Assembly 
of 1601 he refused to vote for the translation of ministers 
recommended by the king. Nominated Moderator of Pres- 
bytery by the General Assembly of 1606, the presbytery was 
charged by the Privy Council to receive him as such under 
pain of rebellion ; he refused office, and was put to the horn. 
In 1608 he visited the churches of Annandale, Ewesdale, and 
Eskdale, with the Archbishop of Glasgow. He was a mem- 
ber of the conference at Falkland, 4th May 1609. In the 
General Assembly of 1617, he gently admonished the Arch- 
bishop of St Andrews for his doctrine at the opening, and 
when obedience to the Articles of Perth was urged at the 
synod in November 1618, he in his discourse exhorted the 
brethren to uphold the liberty and government of the Church 
as established before the appointment of bishops. He died 

^ Fasti EccL Scot., i. 455; Knox's "Works, vi., p. Ixxix. 
2 The paternity of this member of the house is not altogether determined, 
but we incline to regard him as the Reformer's youngest nephew. 


in 1623, aged about sixty-eight; he was much esteemed for 
his ministerial faithfulness.^ 

John Knox, believed to be a son of the preceding, gradu- 
ated at the University of St Andrews about the year 1613, 
and was in 1621 ordained minister of Bowden, Eoxburgh- 
shire. In 1632 he contributed to the fund for building the 
library of Glasgow College. He continued at Bowden till 
the 26th July 1654. He had two sons — Henry, the elder, 
a preacher and master of arts, attended Charles II. in his 
exile, and a sum was by the English put upon his head ; he 
died in the house of a friend at Edinburgh.^ 

John Knox, younger son of Mr John Knox, minister of 
Bowden, graduated at the University of Edinburgh 15th July 
1641. He served as a chaplain in the army in support of 
Charles II., and was present at the battle of Inverkeithing 
in July 1651, when the Eoyalists were defeated. Becoming 
chaplain to Archibald, Earl of Angus, he was in the castle of 
Tantallon when it was besieged by a party of English troops 
commanded by Colonel Lambert. Under the protection of a 
lieutenant and party, he accompanied the Countess of Douglas 
and her infant son, and her sister-in-law. Lady Alexander, 
to North Berwick, from whence they intended to sail to the 
coast of Fife. As the boat got aground, the party was 
compelled to wait the tide, and meanwhile a portion of the 
enemy approached. Dreading capture, the lieutenant and a 
portion of his company escaped in fishermen's boats, leaving 
Mr Knox with the ladies, a sergeant, and a few sentinels. 
Taking the command, he offered to surrender on being 
allowed to convey the ladies to a boat. As their rank was 

1 Knox's Works, vi. Ixxix. ; Fasti Eccl. Scot., i. 519, 558. 
"FastiEccl. Scot, i. 544. 


unsuspected, liis terms were accepted, and the countess and 
her infant son and sister-in-law were, with their valuable 
ornaments, put on board. Mr Knox now invited the officer 
in command of the enemy to join him in a pint of wine, 
and learning in a whisper from his servant, as he was 
filling it out, that a horse for the lieutenant had arrived and 
was on the other side of the inclosure, he at once leaped the 
wall, and mounting the horse, soon out-distanced his captors, 
and reached the castle. He rendered further service to the 
Eoyalist cause by capturing a merchant vessel bearing supplies 
to the English army. At Tantallon he remained till the garri- 
son surrendered, when, as a prisoner, he was carried to Edin- 
burgh. There he received from the king the following letter : 

"St Germans, August 31s<, 1653. 

" I am promised this letter shall come safe to your hands, 
and therefore I am willing that you should know from my- 
self that I am still alive, and the same man I was when I 
was amongst you. I am very much troubled for what you 
suffer, and am using all the endeavours I can to free you, 
and before many months I hope you will see I am not idle ; 
in the meantime, I cannot but let you know that I am in 
greater straits and necessities than you can easily apprehend, 
and thereby compelled to leave many things undone which 
would be of advantage to me and you. I could heartily wish 
therefore, that by your interest and negotiation with those 
you dare trust, and who you know wish me well, some way 
might be thought of to assist me with money, which would 
be a very seasonable obligation, and could never be forgotten 
by me. I need say no more to you, but that I shall be glad 
to receive any advice or advertisement from you that you 
think necessary for me, and shall always remain, 

" Your very loving friend, 

"Charles E." 


Whether Mr Knox was able to procure a loan on the king's 
behalf does not appear.^ 

In 1653 Mr Knox was ordained minister of North Leith. 
Prevented from using the church by the English soldiers 
stationed in the place, he preached in the citadel, and after- 
wards at Newhaven. At the Eestoration his services were 
forgotten. Adhering to the presbyterian government, he was 
by the Privy Council of Charles II. deprived of his charge in 
October 1662. Indulged by the Privy Council in September 
1672, he ministered at West Calder till July 1687, when he 
returned to his charge at Leith. He died in March 1688. 
Having married, 23d June 1659, Jean Dalgleish, of the parish 
of Cramond, who died 26th October 1673, he had a son, and 
a daughter Jean,^ who married, 20th February 1691, the Eev. 
John Tullideph, minister of Dunbarnie, son of Principal 
Tullideph, St Leonard's College, St Andrews.^ 

John Knox, described as a son of John Knox, minister of 
Leith, and garrison chaplain of Edinburgh Castle, married 
Isobel, daughter of John Mack, by whom he had two sons, 
David and Thomas. David, the elder son, a surgeon in 
Edinburgh, married Isobel, daughter of Piobert Hepburn of 
Beanston, by his wife Jane Calderwood, heiress of Whiting, 
with issue, three sons — John, Kobert, and David; also a 
daughter, Charlotte, who married Thomas Trotter, merchant, 
Edinburgh. Eobert was physician to the forces during the 
American war; he afterwards settled in London. He died 
in 1792, leaving, by his wife Sarah Eogers, three sons — 
Granby Eobert, Francis Arthur, and Skene ; also a daughter, 
St Clair Stuart, who married, 3d June 1801, her cousin- 

1 Wodrow's History of the Churcli of Scotland, 1830, iv. 33-39. 

2 Fasti Eccl. Scot., i. 94, 95. ^ Ihid., ii. 634. 


german, William Trotter of Ballindean, Lord Provost of 
Edinburgh. Of this marriage were born four sons and three 
daughters. Colonel Eobert Knox Trotter, the eldest son, 
succeeded to Ballindean ; his eldest daughter, Agnes Bruce, 
married, on 15th October 1857, her cousin, John Eogerson, 
tenth Baron Eollo.^ 

John Knox, the Eeformer, was born in a suburb of Had- 
dington. As Beza, who was his contemporary, designates 
him " Joannes Cnoxus Scotus Giffordiensis," and Spottis- 
woode, writing about 1627, describes him as " born in Gifford, 
within Lothian," it was held by Dr M'Crie that he was a 
native of the village of Gifford, about four miles to the south 
of Haddington. But as it has been shown that that village 
had no existence at the period of ther Eeformer's birth, having 
arisen since the reign of Charles I., it is clear that this opinion 
is untenable.^ To the burgesses of Geneva Knox named his 
birthplace, when, in 1558, his name was placed upon their 
roll ; and therein he is described as a native of Haddington. 
He was born in a suburb of that burgh known as Gififord- 
gate, and which is separated from the town by the river Tyne. 
The barony of Gifford may be traced back to the reign of 
David I., and in a charter of 1452, the lands of Giffordgate 
are named. Two instruments of sasine, dated 1607 and 1611, 
refer to certain portions of land at Giffordgate, being bounded 
by the "Knox Walls;" and writing in 1785, the Eev. Dr 
Barclay, minister of Haddington, represents, as then standing 
in the Giffordgate, the house in which the Eeformer was born.^ 

^ Burke's Commoners, vol. iv. ; Landed Gentry, ed. 1871, voL ii., p. 1414. 

^ Chalmers' Caledonia, vol. ii,, p. 635. 

3 Archseologia Scotia, vol. i., p. 69 ; Proceedings of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of Scotland, vol. iii., p. 52 ; Knox's Works, edited by David Laing, 
vol. vi., preface, pp. xvi. -xviii. 


The social status of William Knox, the Eeformer's father, 
does not very distinctly appear. Dr Barclay describes his 
dwelling as having "a mean appearance," and his will or 
testament-dative is not on record. By Archibald Hamilton, 
his contemporary, but ecclesiastical opponent, the Eeformer 
is described as dbscurus natus parentibus} 

John Davidson, minister of Prestonpans, also a contem- 
porary, and who enjoyed the Eeformer's personal friendship, 
uses, in a panegyrical poem, these lines : 

** First, he descendit bot of linage small, 
As commonly God usis for to call 
The sempill sort his summoundis till expres."^ 

On the other hand, it appears that the Eeformer's father 
possessed substance wherewith to establish one of his sons as 
a merchant, and to educate the other for the Church. He 
married into the respectable county family of Sinclair.^ And 
recent research has indicated, if not entirely proved, that his 
wife was sister or certainly a near relation of Marion Sinclair, 
wife of George Ker of Samuelston, w^hose daughter and 
apparent heir, Nicolas Ker, was second wife of Alexander, 
Lord Home, Lord Chamberlain of Scotland. One of the 
witnesses to a contract, dated 29th October 1497, in favour of 
Alexander, Lord Home, and Nicolas Ker, was William Sinclair 
of Northrig, who was probably father or brother of the 
Eeformer's mother. John Knox, the Eeformer, resided with 
James Ker of Samuelston from 1540 to 1543, discharging 

1 Ai'ch. Hamilton's De Confusione Calvinianse Sectse apudScotos Dialogus, 
fol. 64, a Parisiis, 1577. 

2 Three Scottish Reformers, Lond. 1874, 8vo, p. 86. 

3 In times of peril, when his letters were likely to be intercepted, the 
Reformer was accustomed to subscribe "John Sinclair" (M'Crie's Life of 
Knox, Edinb. 1818, vol. i., p. 2). 


the duties of tutor, and acting occasionally as a clerical 

Having, at the grammar school of Haddington, engaged in 
preparatory studies, John Knox entered, in his seventeenth 
year, the University of Glasgow ; he was, on the 24th October 
1522, incorporated as a student. At the University of Glas- 
gow he attended the prelections of John Mair or Major, Doctor 
of the Sorbonne, and Principal of the college, and Professor 
of Theology. Mair subsequently removed to St Andrews, 
where as Professor of Divinity in St Salvator's College he was 
attended by Buchanan. His sentiments relating both to 
matters ecclesiastical and civil were much in advance of his 
age. He taught that sovereign power was derived from the 
people, and that tyrannical princes might be deposed, and even 
put to death. He denied the temporal authority of the Pope, 
maintaining that he might be controlled by a general council, 
and held that papal excommunication, if pronounced on insuffi- 
cient grounds, was without force. He censured the avarice of 
the court of Eome, denounced the ambition of the clergy, and 
pointing to the insipidity of conventual life, recommended 
the reduction of the monasteries. Through his teaching 
Knox and Buchanan were first led to inquire into the errors 
of the Eoman Church.^ 

In entering the University of Glasgow, Knox doubtless 
intended to qualify himself for ecclesiastical preferment. 
And with his remarkable capacity and dialectic skill, it is 
not uncertain that he would have early acquired distinction 

1 Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, voL iii., pp. 64-68. 

* Dr M'Crie has derived Mair's sentiments from his Commentary on the 
Third Book of the Master of Sentences, and from his Exposition of Matthew's 
Gospel, printed in Latin at Paris in 1517 and 1519 (Life of Knox, Edinb., 
voL i., p. 8). 


either in the Church or university. But he quitted college 
without even qualifying himself for a degree in Arts, and 
inspired by Mair's teaching, abandoned his ecclesiastical 
aspirations, and returned to Haddingtonshire. For eighteen 
years his history is nearly a blank. During a portion of that 
time he resided with his relations at Samuelston, about three 
miles to the south-west of Haddington. Taking secular 
orders, he probably acted as chaplain or " rood priest " in the 
chapel at Samuelston, dedicated to St Nicholas. In a legal 
instrument, dated 27th March 1543, he describes himself as 
" minister of the sacred altar, in the diocese of St Andrews." 
In the protocol books of Haddington, he is mentioned under 
the designation of " Sir John Knox," as having appeared 
at the market cross on the 13th December 1540, on behalf 
of " James Ker in Samuelston." Similarly styled, he, on 
the 21st November 1542, is described as co-umpire with 
James Ker in a dispute respecting " a chalder of victual." 
In the same protocol books he is, as " Schir John Knox," 
named as witness to a deed concerning Eannelton or Eum- 
bleton Law, in the parish of Gordon, Berwickshire.^ In the 
charter room of the Earl of Haddington at Tyninghame, is 
preserved a notarial instrument in Latin, drawn and sub- 
scribed by him. It is an assignation by Elizabeth Home, 
Lady Hamilton of Samuelston, of non-entry duties of the Ley- 
acre to James Ker of Samuelston, and is dated 27th March 
1543. To the future Eeformer Mair's teaching had proved 
of a negative character ; since while it led him to forego pre- 
ferment in the Church, it afforded him no stimulus to under- 

^ Protocol Books of Haddington ; Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland, vol. iii., pp. 57-68 ; Knox's Works, Laing's ed., vol. vi., pre- 
face by Dr D. Laing, xx. -xxii. 


take other duties than those of a notary and private chaplain. 
In 1543 he became known to the Governor Arran's chaplain, 
Thomas Gillaume, a pronounced Protestant. From that skil- 
ful theologian he obtained direct acquaintance with the 
Eeformed doctrines.^ Gillaume was formerly Provincial of 
the order of Blackfriars, and when Arran became reconciled 
to Cardinal Beaton, he consulted his safety by retiring to 
England, where he was as a preacher employed by the Privy 

Knox left Samuelston in 1544 to become tutor to the two 
sons of Hugh Douglas of Longniddry, a Haddingtonshire land- 
owner, who had embraced the Protestant doctrines. During 
his residence at Longniddry, he met and became intimate 
with George Wishart, when he in 1545, under the protection 
of Hugh Douglas and others, preached in Haddingtonshire. 
From place to place he accompanied the future martyr, 
bearing as his protector a two-handed sword. The day pre- 
ceding that on wliich Wishart fell into the hands of Cardinal 
Beaton, Knox reluctantly parted with him at Haddington. 
Taking the sword from his hands, Wishart affectionately said 
to him, " Eeturn to your bairns, and God bless you ; one is 
sufficient for a sacrifice." ^ Next day, being the 13th January 
1545-6, Wishart was seized by the cardinal, and, being carried 
to St Andrews, was immured in the dungeon of his castle. 
Subjected to trial on the 28th February, he was condemned 
to be burned at the stake, and on the following day the 
revolting sentence was ruthlessly carried out. 

Having reduced to ashes the body of one opponent, the 

^ Calderwood's History of the Kirk of Scotland, Edinb. 1842, vol. i., p. 156. 

2 John Knox and the Church of England, by Peter Lorimer, D.D., Lend. 
1875, 8vo, p. 4. 

3 Knox's Works, edit. 1846, vol. i., p. 139. 


cardinal resolved forthwith to immolate another. Pursued 
from place to place at the cardinal's instance, Knox 
determined to visit Germany and its schools. An important 
event induced him to change his resolution. On the 29th 
May 1546, the cardinal in his castle of St Andrews was, by 
a body of conspirators, surprised and slain. In the interests 
of Scottish Protestantism, as well as for their own personal 
safety, the conspirators retained possession of the stronghold. 
On the 11th April 1547, about eleven months after the 
cardinal's death, Knox and his pupils, Francis and George 
Douglas, and Alexander, eldest son of John Cockburn of 
Ormiston, entered the castle. Devoted to the Protestant 
cause, Knox had as yet contemplated the discharge of no 
higher functions than those of a catechist or private expositor. 
But his mode of teaching arrested the attention of the garri- 
son, who joined in the request that he would assume among 
them the office of a pastor. Among those who especially 
urged him to enter the ministry were the celebrated Sir 
David Lindsay of the Mount, and Henry Balnaves, a learned 
upholder of the Eeformed faith. Nor was John Eough, the 
only Protestant minister then labouring in the castle, in any 
degree reluctant to receive him as a coadjutor. Abundantly 
zealous as a Eeformed pastor, Eough was not unconscious 
that in defending his doctrines he lacked the learning and 
logical skill for which Knox had already acquired an honour- 
able reputation. From the pulpit Eough, in the name of 
those assembled, earnestly invited him to accept the minis- 
terial office. Struck by the solemnity of the call, Knox 
burst into tears, and silently withdrew from the apartment ; 
he betook himself to the seclusion of his chamber, but con- 
tinued to hesitate. An occurrence which happened a few 


days afterwards, induced him to discourse publicly. Chal- 
lenged to a discussion by Dean John Annand, Principal of 
St Leonard's College, Eough felt unable to overcome the 
casuistry of his sophistical opponent. In the interests of the 
Eeformed faith, Knox ofiered to become his substitute, and 
disputing with Annand before a large audience in the parish 
church, he denounced the Pope as Antichrist. For doctrines 
not more obnoxious to the Church of Eome, Wishart had 
only fourteen months before been condemned and burnt. 
The startled burgesses entreated that one who dared to dis- 
course so fearlessly would, on the Sunday following, instruct 
them from the pulpit. With this request Knox complied 
readily. His sermon, preached in the parish church of St 
Andrews, was a commentary on the 24th and 25th verses of 
the seventh chapter of the book of Daniel. In his discourse 
he denounced the corruption of the Church, and exposed Jbhe 
vices of the clergy. Among his hearers were two persons, 
whose presence alone would have rendered the occasion 
memorable. These were John Winram, sub-prior, who had 
preached at Wishart's trial, and John Mair or Major, whose 
prelections at Glasgow College had exercised an influence so 
salutary on the preacher himself. 

A powerful and convincing discourse was followed by 
many converts. Leading and influential citizens abjured 
Eomanism, and in token of their sincerity received the Com- 
munion at the hands of the Eeformed pastors ministering in 
the castle. Informed of these proceedings, John Hamilton, 
illegitimate brother of the governor, lately nominated Arch- 
bishop of St Andrews, enjoined Winram as his vicar-general 
to adopt repressive measures. Though inclined to the 
Eeformed doctrines, Winram in virtue of his office summoned 


Knox and Eougli to a public discussion with his clergy in the 
yard of St Leonard's College. On this occasion Friar Arbuckle, 
a man of small capacity and limited acquirements, who under- 
took to defend the papacy, was by Knox's powerful logic and 
crushing wit, affronted and silenced. With a view to obey 
the archbishop, yet not to oiSend the multitude, it was now 
resolved that the more learned clergy connected with the 
university and city should preach by turns in the parish 
church, while in their prelections they should ignore the 
new opinions. To disconcert his opponents, Knox discoursed 
daily on ecclesiastical abuses, twitting the clergy with showing 
a zeal and forbearance to which they had long been strangers. 
On the 29th June, twenty-one French galleys appeared in the 
bay of St Andrews to aid the governor in reducing the castle. 
Unable to approach it by sea, the besiegers commenced on the 
24th July an attack by land. From the summit of the cathe- 
dral cannon were discharged into the stronghold. The garri- 
son, which had already been wasted by sickness, capitulated 
on the 31st July. Assured that their lives would be spared, 
they were further promised, that on being carried to France, if 
they declined to enter the service of the French king, they 
would be conveyed to any other country, except Scotland, 
which they might select. Prior to the siege, John Eough had 
quitted the castle and retired to England ; he there suffered 
martyrdom in December 1557, at the instance of Bishop 
Bonner. Though condemning their impure lives and reckless 
speeches, Knox adhered to his compatriots, and on their sur- 
render shared their captivity. He was chained to the oar as 
a galley slave. Some members of the garrison were released 
from the galleys, and subjected to a less irksome restraint at 
Rouen and other places. But Knox, as an offender against 


the Church, was continued at the oar. The galleys, in 1548, 
cruised on the east coast of Scotland, enabling the Reformer, 
in his bondage, to descry the towers of that interesting little 
city in which he had lately preached the words of salvation. 
Though prostrated by a slow fever, which had supervened on 
toil and imperfect sustenance, he ventured to predict that his 
life would be spared till he would again, at St Andrews, 
glorify God. As he began to recover, he committed to writing 
the substance of his prelections at St Andrews, accompanied 
by an earnest exhortation to steadfastness in the Christian 
life. He secretly conveyed this document to his friends in 
Scotland, who eagerly renewed their efforts for his liberation. 
He at length regained his freedom in February 1548-9, after a 
captivity of about nineteen months. Proceeding to London, 
he was cordially welcomed by Archbishop Cranmer and the 
Lords of the Privy Council. In a list of eighty persons 
licensed to preach under the ecclesiastical seal since July 1546, 
his name appears sixty-fourth in chronological order ; and in 
the " Register of the Privy Council," under date Sunday the 
7th April 1549, is this entry, " Warrant to the receiver of the 
Duchy for 5 lib. to John Knock, preacher, by way of reward." 

At the suggestion of Cranmer, preachers of the Reformed 
doctrines were under the sanction of the Privy Council 
appointed to different districts. Knox was sent to Berwick, 
probably at his own request, on account of its proximity to his 
native spot and the scene of his early labours. At Berwick 
he ministered to the soldiers of the garrison, many of whom, 
under his teaching, abandoned their rude manners and licen- 
tious lives. 

Tunstall, Bishop of Durham, was inclined to silence the 
Scottish chaplain on the charge that he had denounced the 


sacrifice of the mass, but it was perilous to interfere with a 
preacher sanctioned by the Council. The bishop followed 
another course ; he summoned the Keformer to an assembly 
of his clergy and of the Council of the North, the latter being 
members of the Privy Council connected with the northern 
counties. At Newcastle, on the 4th April 1550, the assembly 
met, when Knox, in a vigorous address, maintained that the 
mass was idolatry. AssaiKng his opponents with a vigorous 
raillery, he found them not unwilling to withdraw from 
the conflict, while his own reputation thereby became greatly 
enhanced. In May 1551 he removed to Newcastle as a 
wider sphere of ministerial usefulness. In December of the 
same year he was appointed one of the six chaplains in 
ordinary to Edward VI. In the king's journal, under the 18th 
December 1551, is the following entry: "It was appointed 
I should have six chaplains ordinary, of which two ever to be 
present, and four always absent in preaching ; one year two 
in Wales, two in Lancashire and Derby ; next year two in 
the Marches of Scotland, two in Yorkshire ; the third year 
two in Devonshire, two in Hampshire ; fourth year two in 
Norfolk and Essex, and two in Kent and Sussex, etc. These 
six to be BiU, Harle [Harely], Perne, Grindall, Bradford, 
Knox." Knox's name is inscribed as an erasure of the name 
Eastwick, a Pieformed preacher so designated having been 
originally nominated. The Privy Council Eegister of the 27th 
October 1552, contains "a warrant to the foure gentlemen of 
the privie chamber to pay to Mr Knokis, preacher in the 
north, in way of the King's majesty's reward, the sum of xl/."^ 

^ Knox's Works, voL vi., preface by David Laing, LL.D., xxix. ; John 
Knox and the Church of England, by Peter Lorimer, D.D., Lond. 1875, 
8vo, pp. 79, 80. 


About the end of September 1552, a remarkable sermon 
was preached at London before the king and the Privy 
Council, in which the practice of kneeling at the Communion 
service was emphatically condemned. The preacher was 
certainly Knox.^ The second Prayer Book of Edward VI., 
sanctioned by Parliament to come into use on All Saints' 
Day (the first day of November), was now in the press ; it 
contained a rubric, inserted for the first time, prescribing that 
communicants should receive the Lord's Supper in a kneeling 
posture. Such had been the practice of the unreformed 
Church, and Knox zealously followed up the sentiments of 
Hooper, that partakers of the Lord's Supper should stand or 
sit, so as to avoid the appearance of idolatry. Strongly 
opposed by Cranmer and Latimer, Knox failed in inducing 
the Council to omit the rubric as to kneeling, but at his sug- 
gestion was inserted in the Prayer Book the following declara- 
tion : " As concerning the sacramental bread and wine, they 
remain still in their very natural substances, and therefore 
may not be adored, for that were idolatry to be abhorred of 
all faithful Christians. And as concerning the natural body 
and blood of our Saviour Christ, they are in heaven and not 
here ; for it is against the truth of Christ's true natural body 
to be in more places than in one at one time." That this 
declaration was included in the Prayer Book at Knox's sug- 
gestion, we have the testimony of one who would not willingly 
have commended him. When on the 18th April 1554, disput- 
ing with Latimer at Oxford, Dr Weston, in his place as pro- 
locutor, thus expressed himself : " A runnagate Scot did take 
away the adoration or worshipping of Christ in the Sacra- 

^ John Knox and the Church of England, by Peter Lorimer, D.D., pp. 


ment, by whose procurement tliat heresie was put into the 
last communion-book; so much prevailed that man's authority 
at that time." From the Prayer Book omitted during the 
reigns of Queen Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I., Knox's 
declaration was restored in 1662, and has retained its place 
ever since. 

The "Privy Council Eecords" of the 21st October 1552, 
contain the following entry : "A letter to Mr Harley, Mr Bill, 
Mr Home, Mr Grindall, Mr Perne, and Mr Knox, to con- 
sider certain Articles exhibited to the King's Majestie, to be 
subscribed by all such as shall be admitted to be preachers 
or ministers in any part of the realm, and to report of theyr 
opinions touching the same." ^ Chiefly at Knox's instance, 
all reference to " ceremonies " was omitted ; while on the 
subject of the Lord's Supper, a declaration in accordance with 
that embodied in the Prayer Book was added. The amended 
Articles, reduced from forty- five to forty-three, were by the 
Council returned to Archbishop Cranmer on the 20th Novem- 
ber, and six months later were sanctioned by royal mandate. 
An original copy, in Latin, dated 21st October 1552, and 
bearing the signatures of the king's chaplains, is preserved in 
the Public Piecord Office.^ Knox remained in London till 
the middle of December.^ Before returning to Newcastle, 
he despatched to his former congregation at Berwick an 
"epistle," in which, while reasserting an opinion in favour 
of the Communion being received in a sitting posture, he 
counsels that peace and good order may not be disturbed by 
any resistance to the mode lately prescribed. This com- 

^ Privy Council Eecords, voL iii., p. 624. 
2 Calendar, Domestic Series, 1547-1580, p. 5, No. 34. 
* Dr Lorimer's John Knox and the Church of England, p. 123. 



munication, forming part of the Morrice MSS. in Dr 
Williams's Library, has lately been printed by Dr Lorimer. 

While thus devoting himself towards the purification of 
the Prayer Book and of the Articles of Eeligion, a move- 
ment on the Keformer's own behalf was being actively 
prosecuted. John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, the 
most powerful nobleman in the kingdom since the fall of 
Somerset, had, in the summer of 1552, been for a time 
resident at Newcastle. There having heard Knox preach, he 
constituted him chaplain to his household, and resolved to 
advance him in the Church. Hence the duke's letter, to 
Cecil, which, dated 27th October 1552, proceeds thus : 

" I would to God it might please the King's Majesty to 
appoint Mr Knox to the oftice of Eochester bishoprick, 
which for these purposes should do very well. The first, he 
would not only be a whetstone to quicken and sharp the 
Bishop of Canterbury, whereof he hath need; but also he 
would be a great confounder of the Anabaptists lately 
sprung up in Kent. Secondly, he should not continue the 
ministration in the north, contrary to this set forth here. 
Thirdly, the family of the Scots, now inhabiting in Newcastle, 
chiefly for his fellowship, would not continue there, wherein 
many resort to them out of Scotland, which is not requisite. 
Herein I pray you, desire my Lord Chamberlain and Mr 
Vice-Chamberlain to help towards this good act, both for 
God's service and the king's." 

On the 23d November, Northumberland again urged on 
Cecil " to put him and the lords in memory that some order 
be taken for Knokks." This renewed application was so far 
effectual that Cecil requested the Reformer to communicate 
his wishes to the Duke. Knox waited on his intended 


patron at Chelsea, with the result indicated in the following 
letter sent by Northumberland to Cecil on the 7th December : 

" Master Knox being here to speak with me, saying that 
he was so willed by you. I do return him again, because I 
love not to have to do with men which be neither grateful 
nor pleasable. I assure you I mind to have no more to do 
with him, but to wish him well." 

Chafed with disappointment, and unable to grasp the 
Reformer's scruples, Northumberland wrote angrily, but did 
not withdraw his friendship. Five days subsequent to the 
date of his letter to Cecil, he caused a missive to be 
despatched to Lord Wliarton, now at Newcastle, as deputy- 
warden of the Border, requesting him to show Knox on his 
return every favour and support. Such a communication 
was not unneeded, for during his absence in London, rumours 
to the Reformer's disadvantage had been industriously pro- 
pagated. Returning to Newcastle he there, on Christmas 
Day 1552, discoursed to his people on the corruption of the 
papacy, and strongly set forth that those who opposed the 
preaching of the Gospel were enemies of God and traitors to 
the throne. 

To the Mayor of Newcastle, Sir Robert Brandling, Knox's 
uncompromising denunciations were especially obnoxious. 
To escape his hostilities, Knox was under the necessity of 
communicating with Northumberland. In a letter addressed to 
Cecil, dated Chelsea, 9th January 1552-3, the duke draws the 
secretary's attention to a communication " from poor Knox," 
" by the which," he adds, " you may perceive what perplexity 
the poor soul remaineth in at this present." He then desires 
that it should be made known " both to Lord Wharton and 
the people of Newcastle, that the king hath the poor man and 


his doings in gracious favour," and that " na man shall be 
sa hardy to vex him or trouble him fra setting forth the 
King's Majesty's most godly proceedings." He characterises 
the mayor's charges as " greedy accusations of the poor man," 
and expresses a hope that the Eeformer's sojourn at Newcastle 
may be of brief duration.^ Through the intervention of Cecil, 
Sir Eobert Brandling and the Keformer's other enemies at New- 
castle were baffled for a time, but two months afterwards 
new charges against him were transmitted to the Privy 
Council. Of their precise nature we are uninformed, but 
they were so virulently put forth that the Eeformer believed 
that those who did so actually sought his life. In a letter 
to Mrs Bowes, he writes: "My Lord of Westmoreland has 
written unto me this Wednesday, at six of the clock at night, 
immediately thereafter to repair unto him, as I will answer 
at my peril. Alas, I fear by my death." The Earl of West- 
moreland had, in 1552, on Northumberland's recommenda- 
tion, been admitted to the Privy Council; he was also a 
member of the Council of the North, and lieutenant of the 
bishopric of Durham. He seems to have advised the Eefor- 
mer to proceed to London, and there, in presence of the Privy 
Council, to rebut the charges brought against him. Knox 
reached London in February, and in the following April con- 
ducted service in the chapel-royal as one of the king's chap- 
lains. Before his youthful sovereign he inveighed against 
prevailing errors. 

At the king's request Knox had in February been presented 
by Archbishop Cranmer to All Hallow's vicarage, London, 
but had declined the office. Northumberland approved the 
declinature, but Cranmer, apprehending that he had refused 

^ Tytler's England under Reigns of Edward and Mary, vol. ii., p. 157. 


on account of the articles on kneeling, summoned him to the 
Privy Council. He attended on the 14th April, when the 
question of kneeling was debated. He was dismissed with 
" gentle speeches." ^ 

Eelieved from longer officiating at Newcastle, Knox was 
commissioned by the Privy Council to proceed on a preach- 
ing tour in Buckinghamshire. He commenced in June, 
and was prosecuting his mission at the time of the king's 
death, which took place on the 6th July. On the 26th July 
he preached at Carlisle; in September he was itinerating 
in Kent ; and he returned to London in November. During 
that month the House of Commons restored the mass, re- 
enjoined the celibacy of the clergy, and enacted that from 
the 20th of December "there should be no other form of 
service but what had been used in the last year of Henry 
VIII." About the close of December, Knox's unrelenting 
enemies at Newcastle waylaid his servant, and seized his 
letters, in the hope of discovering new ground of accusation. 
For some weeks he kept in concealment. At length, pro- 
curing a vessel, he in March 1553-4 sailed for Dieppe,^ 

While ministering at Berwick, Knox became intimate in 
the family of Eichard Bowes, captain of Norham Castle, in 
the county of Durham. Third son of Sir Ptalph Bowes of 
Streatlam (whose will is dated 1482), he had two brothers, 
who attained distinction — George, who was knighted on 
the field of Flodden, and Sir Eobert, who was appointed 
Warden of the Marches. Eichard Bowes married in 1522 
Elizabeth, one of the two daughters and co-heiresses of 

^ Calderwood's History of the Kirk of Scotland (Wodrow Society), vol. )., 
pp. 280, 281. 

2 Dr Lorimer's John Knox and the Church of England, 162-200 ; Knox's 
Works, vol. vi., preface by Dr Luing, xxxi. 


Koger Aske of Aske, Yorkshire. Her sister married Henry 
-Wiclif, descended from that Yorkshire family which pro- 
duced Wiclif the reformer. 

By his wife, Elizabeth Aske, Eichard Bowes had five sons 
and ten daughters. The second sui'viving son, Kobert Bowes, 
was ambassador in Scotland during the reign of James VI. 
Sir George Bowes, elder surviving son, was knight marshal 
to Queen Elizabeth. By his first w^ife, a daughter of Mallony 
of Studley, he was progenitor of the family of Bowes of 
Bradley. The family estate was inherited by the issue of 
his second wife, a daughter of Talbot of Grafton. Mary 
Eleanor, only child of George Bowes of Streatlam Castle, 
married in 1767 John, ninth Earl of Glammis, who assumed 
the surname of Bowes. 

The captain of Norham Castle was not very earnest in his 
religious opinions. He professed Protestantism, but was 
willing, at the suggestions of expediency, to return to the 
ancient faith. His wife was, on the contrary, eminently 
conscientious. She steadily upheld the Eeformed doctrines ; 
and because of his powerful advocacy of them, extended 
towards Knox a warm and cordial friendship. An inter- 
change of letters was maintained between them from the 
time the Keformer left Berwick till Mrs Bowes, as his 
mother-in-law, became an inmate of his dwelling. To 
Marjory Bowes, her fifth daughter, Knox made proposals of 
marriage, and his suit was seconded by her approval, even 
when her husband and his family persistently opposed. The 
opposition of the Bowes family, it may be added, could not 
be overcome. In a letter to Mrs Bowes, the Keformer thus 
writes : " This 6 of November I spak with Sir Robert Bowis 
on the matter ye knaw, accordinge to your requeist, whais 


disdanefull, yea dispytfull wordis hatli sa persit my hart, 
that my lyfe is bitter unto me. . . . Amangis utheris 
his maist nnpleasing words, whill that I was about to heve 
declarit my hart in the haill matter, he said, 'Away with 
your rhetoricall reassonis ! for I will not be persuadit with 

Notwithstanding the opposition of her father and relatives, 
Marjory Bowes became in 1553 the Eeformer's betrothed 
wife. In letters written by him in 1553 and 1554, he 
occasionally addresses Mrs Bowes as his "Dearly beloved 
Mother," also styling himself " Your son." In a letter dated 
1st September 1553, he names Marjory Bowes as his 
"wyfe;" and in another, in March 1553-4, as "his dearest 
spouse." ^ 

At Dieppe, Knox completed and despatched to Mrs 
Bowes an exposition of the sixth Psalm, which he had 
begun in England. He also composed a letter, entreating 
to patience and endurance those persons in London and 
other parts of England to whom he had lately ministered. 
At the expiry of a month, he quitted Dieppe, and, travelling 
through France, came to Switzerland. From the leading 
divines of the Helvetic Church he obtained a warm reception 
and a generous hospitality. Eeturning to Dieppe in May, to 
receive letters from England, he was gratified to learn that 
Mrs Bowes and his betrothed wife had resolved to abandon 
their family rather than renounce the Eeformed faith. Hav- 
ing written and despatched a letter to his " afilicted brethren " 
in England, he repaired to Geneva, where he was welcomed 
by Calvin, then in the zenith of his celebrity. 

Again at Dieppe in July, he had the discouraging intelli- 

^ Knox's Works, vol. iii., pp. 370, 376, 378; vol. vi., preface, p. xxxiii. 


gence that many English Protestants, dreading the severities 
of the new regime, had abjured their faith. In earnest com- 
munications he exhorted to patient endurance his affianced 
wife and her devoted mother, while he composed his "Admoni- 
tion to England," which was printed and circulated not long 
afterwards. Hitherto depending on his own resources, he had 
since leaving Britain suffered from lack of funds. He now 
received remittances from attached friends in England ; and 
being likewise privileged to share in the bounty which foreign 
Keformed churches extended to Protestant exiles, he deter- 
mined to settle at Geneva, and there diligently to apply him- 
self to the study of the Hebrew Scriptures. This intention 
was interrupted by his receiving a call from the English refugees 
at Frankfort to become one of their pastors. These refugees 
had hitherto adopted the mode of worship used by the French 
Protestants, which implied the omission of the surplice, the 
litany, and the responses. Afterwards, when a portion of 
their number insisted on using the English service-book, Knox, 
with Calvin's approval, counselled moderation, and consented 
to a form of worship partly taken from the liturgy. Just as 
unanimity was being restored, Dr Cox, who had been precep- 
tor to Edward VI., and who arrived at Frankfort in March 
1555, emphatically demanded that at every service the Book 
of Common Prayer should be used only. Knox expostulated; 
and, in order effectually to silence him, Cox threatened to 
charge him to the emperor with propagating treason, on account 
of certain expressions in his "Admonition to England." At 
the recommendation of the magistrates, who were favourable 
to him, he determined to avoid strife by returning to Geneva; 
and on the 25th March he preached to fifty persons assembled 
in his lodgings a farewell discourse. In his journey he was 



accompanied by William Whittingham, a native of Chester, 
educated at Oxford, and afterwards Dean of Durham; also 
by other members of the Frankfort church. He had just 
become pastor of an English congregation at Geneva, when 
he received letters from Scotland intimating that the queen 
dowager, Mary of Lorraine, who had succeeded Arran as 
regent, was disposed to conciliate the body of Eeformers by 
granting them freedom of worship. Unceasing in his anxiety 
that his native country might be emancipated from papal 
enthraldom, he determined at once to return home and watch 
the course of events. With leave of absence from his cure, 
he proceeded to Dieppe, and from thence sailed for the south- 
east coast of Scotland. At Berwick he remained several 
days with his affianced wife and her mother Mrs Bowes, now 
a widow ; he then hastened to Edinburgh. There, under the 
earnest ministry of John Willock, he found John Erskine of 
Dun, and William Maitland of Lethington, two eminent per- 
sons, with whom, under a variety of circumstances, he was 
destined to be further associated. Maitland was at first 
disposed to temporise, but, under the Eeformer's teaching, 
he embraced heartily the Protestant doctrines. 

Accompanying Erskine to his family residence at Dun, 
in Forfarshire, Knox for a whole month preached daily to 
the people of that district, including many of the neighbour- 
ing gentry who waited on his ministry. On the invitation 
of Sir James Sandilands he visited him at Calder House, 
Linlithgowshire, where he proclaimed the truths of the 
Eeformed faith to influential assemblies, including Archibald, 
Lord Lome, afterwards Earl of Argyle ; John, Lord Erskine, 
and the Lord James Stuart, afterwards Earl of Murray and 
Regent of Scotland. Proceeding to Ayrshire, he preached in 


the county town, and in the mansions of Bar, Kinzeanclengh, 
Ochiltree, and Gadgirth. Immediately before Easter 1556, he 
visited Finlayston, the seat of the Earl of Glencairn, where, 
according to the Helvetian form, he dispensed the Holy Com- 
munion. Eeturning to Dun, the gentry of that district made 
at the Communion table solemn profession of the Eeformed 
faith, pledging themselves to support its interests as opportun- 
ity might occur. Knox's activities became known, and, at 
the instance of the bishops, he was summoned to attend a 
convention of the clergy, to be held in the Blackfriars' Church, 
Edinburgh, on the 15th of May. A few days previously he 
reached Edinburgh, accompanied by Erskine of Dun and 
other Protestant laymen. As the regent declined to sanction 
any extreme measures, the diet was abandoned ; and on the 
day when he expected to answer as an offender, the Eeformer 
preached at Edinburgh to a large and attentive assembly. On 
the recommendation of the Earl Marischal, who had become 
interested in his doctrines, he addressed a letter to the queen 
regent, courteously entreating her protection. Eeceiving the 
letter from the Earl of Glencairn, she slightly glanced at it, 
and then, handing it to the Archbishop of Glasgow, said: 
"Please you, my lord, to read a pasquil." By publishing 
his letter, Knox proved that he had expressed himself 

Having through his friend Campbell of Kilzeancleuch 
accepted an invitation from the aged Earl of Argyle to visit 
him at Castle Campbell, he there preached and celebrated 
the Communion. He resolved to return to Geneva. His 
affianced wife and Mrs Bowes joined him at Edinburgh, where 
it seems probable he was married in June 1556. Taking 
leave of his friends, he left Scotland in July, joining his wife 


and her mother at Dieppe, whither they had preceded him. 
In the "Livre des Anglais," on the 13th September 1556, the 
names of "John Knox, Marjory his wife, Elizabeth her mother, 
James [blank'] his servant, and Patrick his pupel," are entered 
as received members of the English congregation at Geneva, 

The summons which he was prepared to meet in May, 
was renewed when his departure became known; he was 
charged with heresy, and being condemned to the flames, was 
burnt in effigy. Against these proceedings he despatched 
from Geneva a protest or appellation, fully declaring his 
doctrines, and claiming the judgment of a general council. 
To those who in Scotland had attended his ministry, he 
addressed a communication counselling them to confer weekly, 
to study the sacred volume, and to cultivate secret and social 

At Geneva, Knox and his colleague Christopher Goodman 
ministered in the Temple de Nostre Dame la Neuve, granted 
them, on Calvin's intercession, by the Lesser Council of the 
city. But while faithfully discharging the pastoral duties 
abroad, Knox was chiefly concerned about the Church at home. 
To his friends at Edinburgh he, on the 16th March 1556-7, 
addressed a letter containing these words : " My own motion 
and daily prayer is, not only that I may visit you, but also 
that with joy I may end my battle among you. And assure 
yourself of that, that whenever a greater number among you 
shall call upon me than now hath bound me to serve them, 
by His grace it shall not be the fear of punishment, neither 
yet of the death temporal, that shall impede my coming to 
you." Wliile this letter was on its way, Knox was waited 
on by two citizens of Edinburgh, who bore a communi- 
cation from the Earl of Glencairn, and the Lords Lome and 


Erskine, and Lord James Stuart, reporting that the Protes- 
tants were steadfast, that the Eomanists were losing credit, 
and that the engine of persecution was no longer formidable. 
The writers entreated the Eeformer to place himself among 
them, and solemnly vowed to support him at the peril of 
their lives. Deeply moved, Knox consulted Calvin and the 
members of his flock. All counselled acquiescence, and find- 
ing in his friend Whittingham an apt successor in the minis- 
terial office, he bade Geneva farewell. He reached Dieppe 
in October, but was there much disheartened by receiving 
letters, setting forth that some of those who invited his 
return had already become faint-hearted, and even regretted 
attaching themselves to the Protestant cause. Despatching 
a letter of expostulation to the nobility, the Eeformer 
communicated privately with Erskine of Dun, and Wishart 
of Pitarrow. Eesolving not to return to Scotland till he had 
received some reassuring intelligence, he became co-pastor 
of the Protestant church lately established at Dieppe. In 
December he despatched another letter to the Scottish 
nobility, while in a further epistle addressed to Protestants 
generally, he combated the doctrines of the Anabaptists, and 
inculcated moderation. 

His correspondents in Scotland maintaining silence, Knox, 
in the winter of 1557-8, returned to Geneva. With other 
learned persons he engaged in preparing that English trans- 
lation of the Bible which is known as tlie Geneva version. 
Before the close of the year, he issued the first part of his 
treatise entitled, " The First Blast of the Trumpet against the 
Monstrous Eegiment of Women." This treatise or disserta- 
tion, directed against the reigning sovereigns of England and 
Scotland, and the queen regent of the latter country, was, as 


John Fox, the martyrologist, showed in a letter to the author, 
published without consideration. It proved detrimental to 
the Reformer's interests, when Queen Elizabeth ascended the 
English throne, shortly after its appearance, while on the 
other hand it led some to doubt the author's prudence. The 
Eeformer's letter of remonstrance to the Scottish nobility was 
productive of a more satisfactory result. Assembling at 
Edinburgh in December 1557, they subscribed a bond of 
mutual assurance, and cordially renewed their invitation to 
Knox. Fearing his non-compliance, they sent a letter to 
Calvin, begging that he would support their request. Knox 
did not receive the message till November 1558 ; it was then 
accompanied with tidings otherwise cheering. At a conven- 
tion of the nobility and gentry, it had been resolved that 
lessons from the Old and New Testament should be read each 
Sunday in every parish church, and that the Reformed 
preachers should be allowed to teach in private dwellings. 
A decisive step on the part of the Archbishop of St Andrews 
had likewise conduced towards liberating private judgment. 
Unable to dissuade the Earl of Argyle from harbouring 
Walter Douglas, a Carmelite friar, who had embraced the 
Reformed faith, the archbishop determined to rekindle the 
faggot, and extirpate Protestantism by the flames. He seized 
Walter Mill, the aged priest of Lunan, whom his prede- 
cessor. Cardinal Beaton, had pronounced a heretic, and with- 
out the secular sanction, sentenced him to the stake. On the 
28th August 1558, Mill suffered at St Andrews. Even those 
least inclined to reflection began to doubt the sacred 
character of a priesthood which mercilessly refused to 
spare one who opposed their creed, even though burdened 
with the weight of fourscore years. The atrocity of 


Mill's execution sounded the knell of papal despotism. 
The queen regent, bigoted as she was, did not venture to 
approve an act which the nation firmly condemned. For 
a time the promoters of reformation breathed freely. Knox's 
renewed invitation to Scotland reached him at a period 
when the upholders of the Reformed doctrines were especially 
inspired with hope, for on the 17th November 1558, Mary of 
England closed her reign of blood. Knox accordingly deter- 
mined to return to his native country, there in defence of 
Protestant truth to consecrate his remaining years. His 
English brethren at Geneva commended his resolution ; and 
by the local government he was, in token of their respect, 
voted the freedom of the city. 

\\nien he reached Dieppe, he was warned not to pass 
through England, as his treatise on female rule had offended 
Queen Elizabeth. He therefore sailed for Leith, which he 
reached on the 2d of May 1559. He arrived at a peculiar 
juncture, for which, indeed, he was not unprepared. He 
had heard before leaving France, that on the plea that 
Queen Elizabeth was a heretic and a bastard, the princes 
of Lorraine were to claim the crown of England for the young 
Queen of Scots, and that with this view they were to send 
troops to Scotland, there, in the first instance, to suppress the 
doctrines of the Reformation. From Dieppe he had, on the 
10th April, addressed a letter to Cecil, soliciting an interview 
that he might convey important intelligence ; but unwilling to 
offend his royal mistress, the minister remained silent. At 
Edinburgh, Knox found that under the guidance of her 
brothers, the queen regent had vigorously renewed perse- 
cution. Under her sanction Archbishop Hamilton had sum- 
moned tlie Reformed preachers to appear before him at St 


Andrews on the 2d of February, and had only abandoned 
his purpose on the disquieting report that the Protestant 
barons had resolved to defend the preachers by the sword. 
To conciliate the barons, Hamilton assembled at Edinburgh, 
on the 1st March, a provincial council, with the ostensible 
object of correcting abuses ; but when it was suggested that 
religious services should be conducted in the vulgar tongue, 
and immoral persons discharged from exercising the sacred 
function, the proposals were rejected. On the other hand, 
the corrupt doctrines of the Church were firmly re-asserted, 
and a strict inquisition enjoined as to those who absented 
themselves from mass. These enactments were followed 
by a proclamation from the regent, prohibiting all persons 
from preaching who were unsanctioned by the bishops, 
and commanding every subject of the realm to celebrate 
the approaching feast of Easter according to Catholic rites. 
When the Earl of Glencairn ventured to remonstrate with 
her on her breach of faith, the regent replied loftily, that 
it became not subjects to remind princes of their promises. 
The regent, however, gave her assurance that the Eeformed 
preachers would not be molested. The pledge was not 
kept, and at the instance of the archbishop (who offered 
money), the preachers were charged to stand their trial at 
Stirling on the 10th of May. When on the 2d May he 
arrived at Leith, Knox was, by the provincial council then 
sitting at Edinburgh, denounced to the regent, who forth- 
with proclaimed him a rebel and an outlaw. He hastened 
to Dundee, where he found that the Protestants of the 
northern countries had already assembled. It was arranged 
that they should proceed to Perth, and there remain till 
Erskine of Dun had informed the regent of their peaceable 


inteutions. The regent received Erskine graciously, and 
assured him that proceedings against the preachers would be 
abandoned. She then charged the clergy to proceed vigor- 
ously. As the preachers, relying on the regent's promise, 
did not appear in the court at Stirling, they were severally 
outlawed, all being prohibited from sheltering them under 
pain of rebellion. 

From Stirling Erskine rode to Perth, bringing to the 
assembled Protestants tidings of the regent's duplicity. Be- 
fore his arrival, Knox had conducted service in the Old or 
Middle Church ; he had denounced the prevailing corruption, 
especially image worship and the mass. The congregation 
were quietly dispersing, when an imprudent priest, uncover- 
ing a richly adorned altar, prepared to celebrate mass. A 
boy who accosted him rudely, he recklessly struck, and the 
youth in revenge cast a stone, which, falling upon the altar, 
broke an image. Other stones followed, for the bystanders 
were excited not more by the Eeformer's preaching, than by 
the boldness of the priest. Forthwith a crowd collected, 
which the magistrates, aided by the Eeformer himself, was 
unable to disperse till they had unroofed and shattered the 
buildings occupied by the black and grey friars, and had 
wrecked the costly structure of the Carthusian monastery.^ 

Collecting an army, the regent hastened from Stirling to 
Perth, ostensibly to punish the rabble, but in reality to wreak 
her vengeance on the assembled Protestants. Finding that 
she would fail in open warfare, she proposed a treaty, which 
being agreed to, the city surrendered. Knox perceived 
that the regent was insincere, and that on the first oppor- 
tunity she would renew hostilities. Meanwhile, he held an 

^ Knox's History of the Reformation, Wodrow ed., vol. i., p. 442. 


interview with the young Earl of Argyle and Lord James 
Stuart, both of whom still adhered to the court ; they agreed 
that should the regent violate the new treaty, they w^ould 
abandon her cause. When the Eeformers had disbanded, she 
at once resumed the offensive, and with a view of suppressing 
the Reformed doctrines in Fife, marched her troops to Falk- 
land. Knox proceeded to the eastern shores of Fife, and there 
preached in the churches of Anstruther and Crail. On the 
9th June, he joined at St Andrews the Earl of Argyle and 
Lord James Stuart, now leagued with the Protestant party. 
They endeavoured to dissuade him from preaching in the city, 
as the archbishop menaced military resistance. But he refused 
to forego a purpose deliberately formed. Without interference 
he, on the following Sunday, occupied the pulpit of the parish 
church, discoursing to a numerous assembly on the ejection of 
the traffickers from the temple. In the same place he preached 
on the two following days, with the result that the magistrates 
agreed to set up the Reformed faith, while the body of the 
citizens tore down the monasteries and wrecked the cathedral. 
From Falkland the regent moved eastward, and planted 
her troops on Cupar Muir, within nine miles of St Andrews. 
The Reformers waited her advance. Tidings of their su- 
perior numbers led her to avoid risking an engagement ; she 
again proposed terms. At the same time, to prevent the 
surprise of Edinburgh, she caused the passage of the Forth 
to be strongly fortified. Informed of her movements, and 
wholly distrusting her promises, the Reformers overwhelmed 
her garrison at Perth, and by way of Stirling marched to 
Edinburgh. There Knox preached in St Giles's Church, and 
in the Abbey of Holyrood. By the body of the citizens he 

was appointed minister of Edinburgh. 



Leaving Fife, the regent crossed the Forth. Edinburgh 
being in the hands of the Eeformers, she moved her army to 
Dunbar, and from thence sought to renew negotiations. At 
length she gained admission to the capital, for I^rd Erskine, 
M'ho held the castle, yielded her support, and the inhabitants 
of Leith, opening their gates, surrendered to her authority. 

Having established a congregation at Edinburgh, and dis- 
pensed the Communion, in which many of the citizens joined, 
Knox left the care of his flock to Mr John Willock, and 
proceeded on a preaching tour. He visited Kelso, Jedburgh, 
Dumfries, Ayr, Stirling, Perth, Brechin, and Montrose, and at 
each of these places planted or confirmed a Reformed pastor- 
ate. Most of the abbeys and monasteries were in ruins, torn 
down by a lately oppressed but now unfettered and jubilant 

Knox was joined by his family in September. He had in 
May requested his wife and mother-in-law to return to Scot- 
land. They were permitted to pass through England, and 
were accompanied by Mr Christopher Goodman, Knox's col- 
league at Geneva, who, on his arrival, was appointed minister 
first at Ayr, afterwards at St Andrews. 

During Knox's former visit to Scotland, the adherents of 
the Reformed cause assumed the name of the Congregation. 
In September 1559, their leaders, styled the Lords of the 
Congregation, included, with many lesser barons, the Earls of 
Argyle, Glencairn, jVIenteith, and Rothes ; the Lords Ochil- 
tree, Boyd, and Ruthven, and the Lord James Stuart. They 
commanded eight thousand men, but of these one thousand 
only were armed. 

Against the army of the Congregation the regent could 
marshal five thousand troops, of whom the greater number 


were experienced French soldiers. When open conflict be- 
came imminent, the lords applied for aid to the English 
Government, while Knox wrote personally to Cecil, and 
through him conveyed to Queen Elizabeth his regret that he 
had offended her. Cecil consented to negotiate, and Knox 
proceeded to Berwick, there, through the governor, Sir James 
Croft, to hold direct communication with the English court. 
General assurances of support were given ; but these, as 
practically worthless, the lords received with indignation. 
Knox counselled forbearance, and desired permission to 
renew negotiations personally. He wrote strongly to Cecil, 
and, in answer, was promised a subsidy. It was to be 
handed to a confidential messenger at Berwick, and, to avoid 
suspicion, paid in French crowns. 

Informed of Knox's negotiations with the English court, the 
regent resolved on his destruction; she offered a sum of 
money to any one who would apprehend or slay him. Cog- 
nisant of his danger, he made no special provision for his 
safety. He preached daily, and devoted his mornings and 
evenings to correspondence and public business. The most 
industrious person in the commonwealth, he ruled the vessel 
of the State, and practically guided its affairs. 

A convention of the lords, barons, and representatives of 
burghs was, under Knox's direction, held at Edinburgh on 
the 21st October. The conduct of the queen-dowager in 
introducing foreign troops was freely condemned. It was 
further held that she had preferred foreign counsels to the 
entreaties, even the remonstrances, of the native barons. On 
these grounds her suspension from the regency was moved 
by Willock and seconded by Knox. The resolution was 
adopted, and a council appointed to administer affairs till a 


free Parliament might be convened. Among those who 
approved the proceedings was the Duke of Chastelherault, the 
former regent, who, with his son, the Earl of Arran, had 
joined the Congregation. 

But disasters were at hand. The messenger who was con- 
veying the treasure from Berwick was seized and plundered, a 
portion of the Protestant army mutinied, and at an affair at 
Leith, the Eeformers were repulsed by the French troops. At 
another encounter on the 5th November, the leading members 
of the Congregation were defeated by the queen's party. 

The council sought refuge at Stirling. There Knox 
preached to them, and succeeded in inspiring among them 
renovated ardour. By the council Maitland of Lethington 
was despatched to the English court; and it was arranged 
that, during his absence, one-half of the council should 
reside at Glasgow, the other at St Andrews. As secretary 
of the council, Knox proceeded to St Andrews. "When 
the French troops, early in 1560, penetrated into Fife, he 
encouraged the small band, which, under the Earl of Arran 
and Lord James Stuart, resisted their progress. 

Maitland's embassy was successful. On the 27th February 
Queen Elizabeth concluded a treaty with the Lords of the 
Congregation, by which she undertook to send an army to 
their support. Early in April the two armies joined, and soon 
afterwards the fortifications of Leith, in which the French 
troops had enclosed themselves, were invested both by sea and 
land. In failing health the queen-regent sought refuge in 
Edinburgh Castle ; there she died in the following June. 
After some changes Queen Elizabeth resolved to support the 
Congregation with increased vigour, a resolution which brought 
satisfactory overtures from the French court. A treaty was 


subscribed on the 7th July, by which it was settled that the 
French troops should at once quit the country, and those who 
had opposed the late queen-regent should receive pardon, 
while a free Parliament was to settle national affairs. On the 
19th July four thousand French troops were in English vessels 
embarked for France, while in St Giles's Church a public 
thanksgiving for the deliverance was solemnly observed. 
Parliament met at once, but was adjourned till the 1st of 
August, when the subject of reformation was introduced by a 
petition subscribed by Protestants of different ranks. It was 
agreed that the Reformed clergy should prepare a summary 
of doctrine. They forthwith drew up a confession of faith, 
which, deliberately considered, was, on the ITtli August, 
solemnly ratified. On the 2'ltli August the papal jurisdiction 
in Scotland was annulled, and the mass abolished. 

On the 2oth August, Randolph, the English ambassador 
in Scotland, wrote to Cecil that he had conversed with the 
chief ministers respecting uniformity of worship in both king- 
doms, and that while they regarded the proposal with favour, 
he personally doubted its accomplishment. He augured 
rightly. Amidst no inconsiderable opposition, Knox intro- 
duced the forms and discipline of Geneva, and assisted by 
four of his brethren, prepared an ecclesiastical code, after- 
wards known as the " First Book of Discipline." Instead of 
bishops ten superintendents were proposed, but not more 
than six were appointed, and the office was afterwards 
dispensed with. Pastors were admitted to office on being 
called by the people. Elders and deacons were appointed ; 
the former to aid the minister in parochial discipline, the 
latter to have oversight of the poor. In the " Book of 
Discipline," it was stipulated that a school should be erected 


in every parish, aud that the three universities should be 
connected with the Church. The ecclesiastical revenues, it 
was provided, should be dedicated to the support of the 
ministry, of the parish school, and of the poor. This 
monetary provision was obnoxious to the nobility, who 
hoped to obtain the lands which had belonged to the 
Church. At length it was determined by the Privy Council 
that the Church revenues should be divided into three parts, 
two to be retained by the ejected clergy, and the third to 
be divided between the court and the Protestant ministers. 
Against this resolution Knox strongly protested, maintaining 
that his brethren should be more adequately sustained. 

On the establishment of the Eeformed Church in August 
1560, Knox resumed his office as minister of Edinburgh; he 
conducted service in St Giles's Church. According to Ean- 
dolph, in a letter to Cecil, he could, by his oratory, better 
sway an assembly than would the clangour of six hundred 
trumpets. Hitherto sustained through private generosity, he 
was, as minister of Edinburgh, granted by the Town Council a 
stipend of £200, payable quarterly. And as the provost and 
prebendaries of St Giles's Collegiate Church were allowed to 
retain their residences, he received as lodgment a house at 
the Netherbow Port, for which the Town Council paid a 
rent of fifteen merks. This dwelling remains entire, as the 
only monument in the Scottish capital of the illustrious 
Reformer. Sometime the residence of George Durie, Abbot 
of Dunfermline, it was one of the most commodious and 
elegant mansions in the city. In the accompanying engrav- 
ing is denoted its present aspects. A stone building of irre- 
gular architecture, with small ornate windows, it exhibits a 
timber projection, and outside stair. At an angle is a statue 



of Moses receiving the law. The lawgiver points to a carved 
stone, designed to represent the sun rising among the clouds, 
on which is engraved the name of God in Greek, Latin, and 
English. On the west front is the legend: "Lufe God above 


AS YOURSELF." In October 
1561, the Town Council 
of Edinburgh added to the 
mansion "a warm study," ^ 
constructed of oak, which 
has two windows, a fire- 
place, and a recess for 
books. From the win- 
dow of the audience hall 
the Eeformer occasionally 
preached. His sitting- 
room and bed-chamber are, with some modern additions, 
entire. In one of the rooms is an oak chair, which probably 
belonged to him. The house is exhibited to strangers. 

About the close of December 1560, the Eeformer sus- 
tained severe affliction in the death of his attached wife. 
In a letter of condolence addressed to the bereaved husband, 
Calvin remarked that she was " a wife, the like of whom is 
not everywhere found." Writing to Mr Christopher Good- 
man, he describes her as " suavissima." Mrs Knox died 
about the age of twenty-seven. Her mother, Mrs Bowes, 
continued a member of the Reformer's household. Subject 
to melancholy, she augmented his anxieties. 

Francis II. of France, the sickly husband of Mary Stuart, 
Queen of Scotland, expired on the 6th December 1560, and 

^ Edinburgh Town Council Records. 


with his death terminated a project to annul the English 
treaty, and denounce as illegal the proceedings of that 
assembly of the estates which had established the Protestant 
faith. It now became the settled opinion of the Protestant 
nobles that if the queen were removed from the influences 
of the French court, she might, guided by prevailing 
sentiment, govern well and prudently. They, therefore, 
invited her return. Knox cherished a contrary opinion, but 
he was overruled. 

The queen landed at Leith on the 19th August. She 
directed that on the following Sunday mass should be 
celebrated at Holyrood. The announcement roused the 
populace, but Knox counselled moderation. Next Sunday, 
however, he publicly declared that by a single mass the 
truth was more endangered than by the swords of ten 
thousand adversaries. This was strong language; and as 
before leaving France the queen had boasted she would 
silence him, it was to be anticipated that he would be 
required to answer for his boldness. 

The Reformer was summoned to Holyrood. In presence 
of the Lord James Stuart, he was brought before the queen. 
She began by railing at him, then talked peevishly of his 
abusing her, and ultimately told the Reformer that she would 
send for those who could answer him. Knox expressed 
himself with much courtesy, and concluded a brief exposi- 
tion of the Reformed doctrines with these words : " I pray, 
madam, that you may be as blessed within the common- 
wealth of Scotland as even Deborah was in the common- 
wealth of Israel." 

In celebration of the massacre of Vassy, when her uncles, 
the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine, surprised 


and slaughtered a congregation assembled for Protestant 
worship, the queen entertained her servants at a dancing 
assembly. From the pulpit Knox denounced the proceed- 
ing, and he was, in consequence, again summoned to the 
palace. Having learned that on this occasion the Eelormer 
would command even a wider sympathy than when lately 
he had denounced the mass, the queen heard his defence 
patiently; and instead of venturing on censure, dismissed 
him with the not ungracious request that when next he 
had occasion to find fault with her, she hoped he would do 
so elsewhere than in church. In passing from the royal 
presence through the ante-room, a gentlewoman remarked 
that he was evidently not afraid. Turning to the speaker 
he said mildly, " Fearlessly I have looked into the counte- 
nances of angry men, and why should I fear the face of a 
fair lady ?" 

Early in 1562 Erskine of Dun was admitted to ottice as 
Superintendent of Angus. Knox preached on the occasion. 
In the following month, in St Giles's Church, he solemnised 
the marriage of Lord James Stuart, now Earl of Murray, with 
a daughter of the Earl Marischal. During autumn an attempt 
to upset the constitution by substituting at court Popish for 
Protestant counsellors being successfully resisted, the Earl 
of Huntly rose in rebellion. He was, on the 28th October 
1562, overcome by the Earl of Murray at the battle of 
Corrichie. In support of order Knox aroused the barons of 
the southern and western counties. 

The most influential person in the State, Knox was, by the 
entire body of the Eeformers, beloved and reverenced. He was 
asked to adjust differences in families, to settle civil disputes, 
and to intercede on behalf of those who had offended. Eegular 


in attending Church courts, he often preached, and was care- 
ful in his preparations. But his duties at length became too 
arduous, and in June 1563 he accepted as his colleague 
Mr John Craig, formerly of the Canongate. 

On the 28th September, at eight o'clock of the morning, 
Knox commenced, in the house of the Provost of Maybole, 
his celebrated disputation with Quentin Kennedy, uncle of 
the Earl of Cassilis and Abbot of Crossraguel. The subject 
was the lawfulness of the mass, and the debate continued 
three days, when the umpires, forty on each side, being 
wholly exhausted, begged an adjournment. The debate was 
not resumed ; but Knox, to counteract false reports as to 
what had occurred, published a narrative of the discussion. 
The tract, long extremely rare, has been reproduced in the 
late collected edition of the Eeformer's works.^ 

A proclamation of the queen in council, forbidding the 
celebration of the mass, having been violated in a western 
county, the Protestant gentlemen of the neighbourhood seized 
and apprehended the offending priests. Soon afterwards, when 
on a visit to Lochleven in May 1563, the queen sent for 
Knox, and in a lengthened interview, entreated him to help 
her in procuring toleration for those adhering to the Catholic 
faith. Altogether opposed to compromise, Knox insisted that 
the law should be enforced against those using papal rites. 
He spoke of the contract which subsisted between princes 
and their subjects, maintaining that allegiance could only be 
exacted from the latter when the former duly executed the 
law. The queen evinced her displeasure, but next morning 
recalled the Reformer, and expressed herself graciously. She 
mentioned to him playfully that Lord Ruthven had proposed 

^ Knox's Works, edited by David Laing, voL vi., pp. 15.5-220. 



marriage to her, but that she disliked him, as he used 
enchantment. She referred to differences between the Earl 
and Countess of Argyll, which she hoped the Eeformer would 
heal, and finally promised to protect the new faith by punish- 
ing its opponents. 

In token of her sincerity the queen put in ward Arch- 
bishop Hamilton and some other priests ; she also convened a 
Parliament, ostensibly to establish the Protestant faith. As 
the Parliament was at once dissolved, Knox apprehended that 
the Protestant lords had been temporising to gain the royal 
favour, and so censured them, both in private and from the 
pulpit. Eeferring to a rumour that the queen was to marry 
a Catholic, he denounced the project as fraught with con- 
sequences pernicious and terrible. 

The queen commanded him to attend at Holyrood. He 
came, and she passionately charged him with trespassing on 
her forbearance. "What have you to do with my marriage; 
or what are you in this commonwealth ? " she exclaimed 
petulantly, and with scorn. " Madam," replied the preacher, 
" I am a subject born within the commonwealth, and a profit- 
able member of it ; by your being wedded to an unfaithful 
husband the State would suffer." Mary burst into tears, and 
Erskine of Dun, who was present, desired the Eeformer to 
withdraw. The queen insisted that he should be put in 
ward, but he was allowed to return to his house. 

The queen vowed revenge. Eeports to the Eeformer's 
disadvantage were circulated, but his moral character was un- 
impeachable. A difficulty supervened. During the queen's 
absence at Stirling in August, her domestics were celebrating 
worship at Holyrood according to the Catholic ritual, when 
several Protestant citizens burst into the chapel, and interrupted 


the service. Two of the rioters were seized and committed 
for trial. Though disapproving their unseemly proceedings, 
Knox apprehended that if the persons, seized were subjected 
to punishment, the adherents of the papacy would multiply 
grievances, and bring charges against all who were opposed 
to them. He accordingly, with the consent of the Church, 
issued a circular letter entreating the leading Protestants of 
the city to attend at the trial. One of the circulars falling 
into the hands of Sinclair, Bishop of Koss, President of the 
Court of Session, he conveyed it to the queen. Consulting 
some members of her council, who pronounced it treasonable, 
she charged Knox to appear before a convention of the 
council and nobility, to be held at Holjrrood in December. 

For the first time since his arrival in Scotland the Re- 
former's friends felt anxious for his safety. If his letter was 
found treasonable, it was certain he could expect no clemency 
from the throne. His friends accordingly entreated him to 
withdraw his letter, and trust to the forbearance of his 
judges. Refusing to retract or alter a single word, he, through 
a multitude of spectators, walked to the meeting-place of the 
convention, and there stood before the council- table. Seeing 
him in the place of trial, the queen burst into unseemly 
laughter, and remarked to those who sat near her, how that 
he had made her weep without weeping himself ; but that 
" she would make him weep now." 

The indictment embraced two charges. The accused, it 
was asserted, had illegally convoked the lieges, while 
by these words contained in his letter — "open a door to 
execute cruelty against a multitude," he had charged the 
queen with cruelty and injustice. The first charge at once 
broke down. To the second charge Knox made answer, that 


he accused not Ms sovereign with cruelty, but those enemies 
of the State who sought to exterminate the Eeformed 
doctrines. He then withdrew ; on being recalled he was 
informed that, as a free man, he might return to his house. 
Having made sure of his condemnation, the queen was 
irreconcilable. To allay her resentment, the Earl of Alurray 
and Secretary Maitland proposed to the Eeformer that he 
should ward himself in the castle, though for an hour only. 
His conscience, he replied, would not permit such trifling 
with justice. 

Having remained a widower upwards of three years, Knox, 
in March 1563-4, espoused Margaret Stewart, second daughter 
of Andrew, third Lord Ochiltree. His wife inherited royal 
blood; she was descended from Eobert II., through his second 
son, Robert, Duke of Albany. Her father, known as " the good 
Lord Ochiltree," was the Reformer's deeply-attached friend, 
and one of the earliest and most zealous promoters of the 
Reformed doctrines.^ 

In his public devotions Knox prayed for the queen's con- 
version. Secretary Maitland disapproved, and between him 
and the Reformer a warm debate as to whether his procedure 
was lawful, also on the obedience due to princes, was, in June 
1564, conducted before some of the leading clergy. It was 
proposed to consult Calvin, but no definite resolution was 
arrived at. The Reformer, it may be assumed, continued his 
former practice. 

After rejecting numerous offers for her hand, the queen at 

1 In writing to Cecil, 18tli March 1563-4, Randolph notifies the Reformer's 
proclanjation of banns, adding, "The queen stormeth wonderfully, for that 
ahe [Margaret Stewart] is of the blood and name " (Knox's works, vol. vi., 
p. 533). 


length gave a preference to her cousin, Henry, Lord Darnley, 
son of the Earl of Lennox. She was married to Darnley in 
the Abbey Church of Holyrood on the 29th July 1565. 
Though practically indifferent to religion, Lord Darnley was 
professedly a Catholic, and in prospect of the marriage, some 
further security for the maintenance of the Protestant faith 
was desired generally. To gratify the nobility, the queen 
summoned a Parliament ; but she at once prorogued it to 
avoid any legal recognition of the Eeformed doctrines. On 
the other hand, she endeavoured to conciliate the Eeformed 
clergy by occasionally attending their public services. 

Resolving to uphold her prerogative, and therewith the 
Roman faith, she proceeded to fortify her authority. With- 
out consulting the council or the nobility, she created her 
husband Duke of Albany, and gave him the title of king. 
Feeling they were deceived, the Earl of Murray and others of 
noble rank left the court, and attempted an insurrection ; 
being insufficiently supported, they fled to England. In this 
revolt Knox and the Protestant ministers did not join ; they 
were willing to live peaceably so long as their liberty was 
not actually endangered. To gratify the Reformers, Darnley 
attended St Giles's Church on Sunday, the 19th August, 
occupying a seat which was specially prepared for him. 
Knox preached, and in the course of his prelections, quoted 
these words of Scripture, "I will give children to be their 
princes, and babes shall rule over them ; children are their 
oppressors, and women rule over them." Believing that the 
preacher intended the quotation as applicable to himself and 
the queen, Darnley returned to the palace, and refused to eat 
till the Reformer was sent for. Knox had, as was his manner, 
retired to rest after the morning service ; he was aroused, 


and conducted to Holyrood. He was asked no questions, but 
was prohibited from occupying his pulpit so long as their 
majesties remained in Edinburgh. Knox published his 
sermon, and it is interesting as the only specimen of his 
pulpit discourses which has been handed down. In the 
preface he remarks that he considered himself " rather called 
of God to instruct the ignorant, comfort the sorrowful, con- 
firm the weak, and rebuke the proud, . . . than to com- 
pose books." Withal he holds that he would be " injurious 
to the Giver if he dared to deny that God had revealed unto 
him secrets unknown to the world ; " affirming in explanation 
that he had betaken himself to " study and travail within the 
Scriptures of God these twenty years." ^ 

The queen and Darnley left Edinburgh for Linlithgow and 
Stirling on the 25th August — a considerate step, since the 
town council had determined that the ministrations of their 
favourite pastor should not be interrupted. 

About December 1565, Mr Christopher Goodman, minis- 
ter of St Andrews, returned to England, and so vacated his 
ministerial charge, when the members of the congregation 
entreated the General Assembly that Knox might be ap- 
pointed as his successor. The application was refused, but 
Knox was delegated by the Assembly to visit the ministers 
in the southern counties, and to encourage them under their 
privations. He was also commissioned to prepare a treatise 

1 Knox's discourse is contained in a small duodecimo, entitled, "A Sermon 
preached by 'lolin Knox,' Minister of Christ lesus, in the publique audience 
of the Church at Edinbrough, within the Realme of Scotland, vpon Sunday, 
the 19th of August 1565, for the which the said lohn Knoxe was inhibite 
preaching for a season. Imprinted anno 1566." The preface is dated at 
"Edinburgh, the 19th of September 1565." A copy, which was purchased 
by Mr Heber for £4, 19s,, is preserved in the Grenville Collection in the 
library of the British Museum. 


on fasting, which was intended to indicate grounds for national 
humiliation and watchfulness. Those grounds, as represented 
by Knox, were sufficiently alarming. Since her marriage, 
and the exile of the Protestant lords, the queen had vigorously 
sought the destruction of the Keformed Church. While 
issuing proclamations declaring that she would protect the 
religion of the people, she secretly prepared for the restora- 
tion of the Eoman faith. Even Darnley, libertine as he was, 
affected zeal for the Catholic Church, and with the Earls of 
Lennox, Cassilis, and Caithness, and Lords Montgomery and 
Seton, assisted at its rites. Friars were employed to preach 
at Holyrood ; Roman ecclesiastics were restored to their seats 
in Parliament ; and altars were prepared for erection in St 
Giles's Church. To complete the resolution, the exiled lords 
were summoned to attend in Parliament on the 12th March, 
that in their contemplated absence they might be forfeited. 

An unexpected complication intervened. Granted soon 
after his marriage the title of king, Darnley had, owing to 
his hopeless incapacity, been denied the privilege of reigning. 
Instigated probably by his worthless companions, he insisted 
on receiving the crown matrimonial, or, in other words, a 
share in administering the Government. As the queen 
demurred to his request, he was persuaded that in her declina- 
ture she was guided by her secretary, David Riccio, who, he 
also persuaded himself, was his rival in her affections. He 
resolved, therefore, on Riccio's destruction ; and finding accom- 
plices in the Earl of Morton and Lord Ruthven, he, on the 
evening of Saturday, the 9th March 1565-6, ushered these 
noblemen into the royal apartments at Holyrood, where 
they despatched the secretary in the queen's presence. 

Riccio's death proved serviceable to the Protestant cause. 


A native of Italy, accomplished in letters, and warmly 
attached to the Roman faith, he had been a main counsellor 
in those arrangements by which the subversion of the 
Reformed Chvirch had been provided for. So fully was this 
understood that, immediately on obtaining intelligence of 
his death, the exiled lords returned to Scotland. Knox hav- 
ing in the pulpit expressed his gratitude that the queen had 
been delivered from an evil counsellor, he again experienced 
a sharp manifestation of her displeasure. To secure his 
safety he left Edinburgh. The queen, hearing he had gone 
to Ayrshire, communicated with a nobleman of the West, 
desiring that he would, to one so obnoxious to her, exhibit 
neither countenance nor hospitality. With the permission of 
the General Assembly, the Reformer repaired to England, 
where his two sons were residinof with relatives of their 
mother. Before leaving Scotland he denounced, both to the 
General Assembly and to the Privy Council, an act of the 
queen, by which, on the 23d December 1566, she restored 
the Archbishop of St Andrews to his former jurisdiction. 

Not long subsequent to Riccio's murder, the queen came 
to know that it had been devised by her husband ; she vowed 
revenge, and remained implacable. On the 10th February 
1566-7, at two o'clock a.m., the house in Kirk o' Field, Edin- 
burgh, in which Darnley had the evening before retired to rest, 
was blown up with gunpowder; his dead body was found 
among the ruins. Public opinion charged the Earl of Both- 
well with the murder ; and the queen, who had before the 
event intimately associated with that nobleman, afterwards 
extended to him friendly intercourse. On the 15th May, or 
just three months after Darnley 's murder, she became his wife. 

The Protestant lords confederated for the defence of the king- 



dom, and of the young prince. Bothwell, defeated at Carberry 
Hill, fled to Norway ; and the queen, conveyed a prisoner to 
Lochleven, abdicated in favour of her son. 

Knox returned from England in June. He was present at 
the General Assembly which met at Edinburgh on the 25th 
of that month, when he accepted a commission to entreat the 
Hamilton s and others, who stood aloof from the confederate 
lords, to attend a convention of the estates. On the 29tli 
July he preached in the parish church of Stirling at the 
coronation of James VI. 

Soon after Darnley's murder, the Earl of Murray, obtain- 
ing permission to leave the kingdom, retired to France. 
He was recalled by a message from the confederate lords, 
informing him of the queen's abdication, and that he had 
been nominated to the regency. On the 22d August 1567, 
he assumed office. Parliament, under his authority, met on 
the 15th December, when Knox delivered a discourse, com- 
mending the interests of the Church. The Confession of 
Faith, and acts establishing the Protestant faith and against 
Popery, were now formally ratified. It was further enacted 
that each succeeding sovereign should make promise at 
coronation to uphold the Reformed faith and the jurisdic- 
tion of the General Assembly. Knox did not acquiesce in 
the queen's imprisonment. He held that she was guilty 
of murder, and that, in like manner as a private citizen, 
she should be subjected to trial, and if found guilty, con- 
demned. On the 2d May 1568, the queen escaped from 
Lochleven Castle, and, joined by a portion of the nobility 
and their followers, including the party of the Hamiltons, 
attempted to upset the Government. Defeated at Langside, 
she rode sixty miles to the Abbey of Dundrennan, where 


she found shelter. Next day she proceeded to Carlisle, to 
throw herself on the protection of Queen Elizabeth, whose 
title to the English throne she had not long before endea- 
voured to subvert. 

Mary's prompt discomfiture being chiefly due to the 
energy of the regent, Archbishop Hamilton proceeded to 
form a conspiracy to effect his death. In his nephew, 
Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, he found one ready to under- 
take to assassinate a ruler who, when he was under sentence 
of death, had spared his life. As the regent was passing 
through Linlithgow, Hamilton discharged at him a musket 
ball, which inflicted a mortal wound. The regent perished 
on the evening of Saturday the 23d January 1569-70, and 
next morning Knox received the sad tidings. He was over- 
whelmed with grief, for apart from the irreparable injury 
which he knew the country had sustained, he was moved by 
the consideration that lie had recommended to the regent's 
pardon the man at whose hand he had fallen. In the pulpit 
he expressed himself with deep feeling, commending the 
slaughtered nobleman as one largely imbued with Divine 
grace, and whose removal was, he believed, a chastisement on 
the kingdom. On the 14tli February the regent's remains 
were deposited in the southern aisle of St Giles's Church. 
Prior to the interment, Knox preached to a congregation of 
three thousand persons, when he expatiated on the virtues of 
the deceased. Many of his hearers wept. 

After the regent's death, the Reformer's health began to 
fail. The shock had seriously injured a constitution 
enfeebled by many labours. In October 1570 he suffered 
from an attack of apoplexy, which for a time impaired his 
utterance. But he recovered ; and though he ceased to 



attend Church courts, and to minister at week-day servicer, 
he preached each morning in St Giles's Church. 

As the natural guardian of the young king, the Earl of 
Lennox was appointed regent, much to the annoyance of 
the Hamiltons, who now openly espoused the cause of the 
exiled queen. They were supported by Maitland of Leth- 
ington and Sir William Kirkaldy of Grange, the latter 
being governor of Edinburgh Castle. Eor a time Kirkaldy 
had professed neutrality. A supporter of the Eeformation, 
he was cherished by Knox as a warm personal friend. 
But his vacillating disposition had led the Reformer to 
doubt whether he could be fully relied on. At length 
ensued an open rupture. In a dispute between Kirkaldy, 
as governor of the castle, and the town council of the 
city, in regard to a soldier of the garrison who had been 
charged with murder, the Reformer supported the corpora- 
tion. Incensed by a report that Knox had traduced him 
from the pulpit, Kirkaldy attended St Giles's Church, along 
with several persons associated with the alleged felony. 
Knox discoursed on the sinfulness of forgetting God's 
benefits, and warned his hearers against confiding in the 
Divine mercy, while knowingly transgressing the command- 
ments. Accepting the censures as applicable to himself, 
Kirkaldy talked menacingly ; and certain annoyances to 
which the Reformer was subjected w^ere traced to his devices. 

Among other modes of vexation, the Reformer found him- 
self, by anonymous placards, represented to the General 
Assembly of March 1570-1 as a mover of sedition; he was 
also charged with having denounced the queen as a repro- 
bate, and of having refused to pray for her. He was coun- 
selled to ignore accusations which could scarcely injure him, 


but in the interests of the Church he determined to repel 
them. Taking up the subject in a discourse to his people, 
he showed that while he had charged the queen with offences 
of which she w^as notoriously guilty, he had not described 
her as a reprobate, nor held that she might not repent ; he 
had not prayed for her as the sovereign, for she had abdi- 
cated, and her son w^as king. 

What satisfied his friends w^as not likely to content those 
who regarded his existence as a barrier to the restoration 
both of the queen and of the Koman faith. In April 1571, 
Kirkaldy having received the Hamiltons into the castle, 
his life became in daily jeopardy. He received menac- 
ing letters, and a musket-ball discharged at the window 
of his sitting-room entered it opposite to the spot where he 
usually sat, and penetrated the ceiling. By his friends his 
house was watched nightly, while an armed guard accom- 
panied him to and from church, as well as in his daily walks. 
At length on the entreaty of his friends, he consented for a 
time to quit the city. In the beginning of May he pro- 
ceeded to St Andrews. There he lodged in the abbey, and 
conducted service every Sunday in the parish church. One 
of his hearers w^as James Melville, then a college student, 
afterwards minister of Anstruther — and who in his " Diary " 
has described his manner of preaching in these words : 

" I heard him teatch the prophecie of Daniel that simmer 
[1571] and the wintar following. I had my pen and my 
litle bulk, and tuk away sic things as I could comprehend. 
In the opening up of his text, he was moderat, the space of 
an halff houre ; but when he entered to application, he made 
me so to grew [thrill] and tremble, that I could nocht hald a 
pen to wryt. . . . He was verie weik. I saw him everie 


day of his doctrine, go Imlie and fear [slowly and warily] 
with a furring of martriks about his neck, a staffe in the 
an hand, and gud godlie Eichart Ballanden, his servand, 
halden up the uther oxtar [arm -pit] from the abbey to the 
paroche kirk, and be the said Eichart and another servand 
lifted upe to the pulpit, whar he behovit to lean at his first 
entrie ; but or he haid done with his sermont, he was sa active 
and vigorus, that he w^as like to ding the pulpit in blads 
[pieces] and fly out of it." ^ 

At St Andrews, Knox was keenly opposed by members of 
the queen's faction, of whom the more conspicuous were Eobert 
and Archibald Hamilton, the former one of the ministers of 
the city, the latter a professor in one of the colleges, and who 
afterwards abjured Protestantism. Eumours originated by 
these persons charging him with being concerned in Darnley's 
murder, he openly repelled. On the capture of Dunbarton 
Castle, at the instance of the regent, Archbishop Hamilton 
was taken prisoner, and on the charge of being concerned 
both in the murder of Darnley and of the late regent, was in 
April 1571 executed at Stirling. The temporalities of the 
archbishopric were granted to the Earl of Morton, who 
nominated to the see John Douglas, Eector of the University. 
Opposed alike to the spoliation of the ecclesiastical revenues 
by the system of " tulchan ^ bishops " now introduced, as well 
as to the episcopal order itself, Knox declined to inaugurate 
Douglas in his office, and expressed his displeasure, in their 
own hearing, both with the bishop and his patron. 

The civil war carried on between the regent and the 

* Melville's Diary, Ediub., Wodrow Society, 1842, 8vo, pp. 26-33. 

' A tulchan is a calf's skin stuffed with straw, set up to induce the cow to 
give her milk freely ; it was applied to those bishops who accepted ojfice, to 
enable the lay impropriators to obtain the revenues of their sees. 


adherents of the exiled queen terminated in July 1572, 
when an arrangement between the parties was concluded. 
Immediately thereafter, a deputation from his former flock 
waited on the Eeformer at St Andrews, entreating him to 
resume among them his pastoral labours. He consented, 
and in the end of August 1572 returned to Edinburgh. On 
the following Sunday he preached in St Giles's Church, but 
his voice, now very feeble, was unheard by half the assem- 
blage. At his request, that part of the edifice, known as 
the Tolbooth, was fitted up for his use, but he chiefly con- 
cerned himself in selecting one to succeed him in the 
ministry. Under his sanction, Mr James Lumsden, sub- 
Principal of King's College, Aberdeen, was chosen as his 
colleague and successor ; at his induction on Sunday the 9th 
November, the Reformer preached for the last time. 

On Tuesday the 11th November he was seized with 
asthma, which in two days was followed by severe prostra- 
tion. About the 15th he rallied, and entertained at dinner 
two of his more attached friends. On the 17th he called 
to him his colleague, his friend Mr David Lindsay, minister 
of Leith, and the elders and deacons of his flock. To these 
he remarked that while he was accused of severity, his desire 
in reproving was only to reclaim. He then exhorted each to 
patient endurance and religious zeal. To Kirkaldy, who 
on the queen's behalf still held the castle, he conveyed a 
message of affectionate warning ; when informed that it 
was received in an unkindly spirit, he earnestly expressed 
his grief. 

Among those admitted to his sick-chamber was the Earl 
of Morton, afterwards regent. He warned that ambitious 
nobleman to cherisli the Eeformed Chmnjh, predicting that 


should he act otherwise, he would close his career in shame. 
In the extremity of his misfortunes, the earl made known 
the Reformer's words. 

On the 21st November he gave instructions that his 
coffin should be prepared. To Johnston of Elphinston, who 
visited him on Sunday the 23d, he said that he had 
been meditating on the troubled state of the Church, and 
that he had in prayer commended her to her Divine Head. 
He added, " I have fought against spiritual wickedness in 
high places, and have prevailed." Those of his people 
who came to visit him he exhorted to "live in Christ." 
On Monday the 24th his affectionate wife was relieved in 
her watching by Eichard Bannatyne, his attached secretary ; 
Campbell of Kinzeancleuch, Dr Preston, and others. At 
three o'clock p.m. his sight began to fail, and he requested 
his wife to read to him the fifteenth chapter of the first 
epistle to the Corinthians, and thereafter the seventeenth 
chapter of John's gospel, where he remarked he had " cast his 
first anchor." Awaking from a deep slumber, in which he 
moaned heavily, he spoke of being tempted to rely on his 
own works, but that overcoming the tempter, he r.elied 
only on the merits of his Saviour. At ten he joined heartily 
in the evening devotions. About eleven he said, " The end 
has come." He then became speechless. " Give us a sign 
that it is peace," said one who stood near. The dying man 
pointed upwards, and yielded up his spirit. 

Thus died the most illustrious Scotsman of his age — a 
Reformer, who, in intellectual force, may be ranked with 
Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. What he lacked by not being, 
like many of his contemporaries, privileged to study at the 
more learned universities, he compensated by prolonged study 


at home ; and it must be remembered that nearly his whole 
time prior to the age of forty was occupied in storing up 
knowledge. The truth dawned upon him slowly, and even 
after he had adopted the principles of the Eeformation he 
greatly hesitated before he would accept the pastoral office. 
A masterly logician, he could involve his opponents in the 
web of their own subtleties, while his intimate acquaintance 
with the Scriptures and with the Christian fathers rendered 
him a formidable antagonist to all who disputed with him 
concerning faith or morals. Of sterling integxity, he might 
not by considerations of expediency be diverted from his pur- 
pose, nor would he adopt half measures. To the Protestant 
faith his uncompromising attachment is evidenced in the 
English " Book of Common Prayer," as well as in the Scottish 
" Confession." His manner of preaching, characterised by 
forcible earnestness, was peculiarly adapted to a time when, 
unless for the censures of the pulpit, the grossest criminality 
might have walked forth unblushing and uncondemned. But 
for the terror inspired by his denunciations, and his power 
in arousing the populace, the tree of Eeformation had, by the 
votaries of Eome on the one side, or an avaricious nobility on 
the other, been torn up or crushed. He moulded the Scottish 
nation in its religious opinions, and fostered its love of inde- 
pendence. " In the history of Scotland," writes Mr Carlyle, 
" I can find properly but one epoch ; we may say it contains 
nothing of world-interest at all, but the Eeformation by 
Knox." 1 

Among the Eeformer's contendings was his effort to secure 
a proper provision for the ministry. In this he failed, chiefly 
through the rapacity of the nobles. But he succeeded in 

^ Carlyle's Lectures on Heroes and Hero- Worship, 1860, p. 293. 


jjlanting a school in every parish, thereby providing for the 
northern portion of the island a privilege not realised by the 
southern and more important till three centuries afterwards. 
By some Knox has been described as possessing an austere, 
harsh, and unloving nature ; as one who, without toleration 
and without sympathy, mercilessly exposed human frailties. 
Such a description of him could only arise from an imper- 
fect acquaintance with his character, and the circumstances 
by which he was surrounded. Subject to constitutional 
depression, he was occasionally morose, even sullen ; but he 
heartily forgave injuries, was lenient to the erring, and 
vehement only in censuring abuses pertinaciously persisted 
in. Had he flourished in any other age or country, he would 
have been celebrated for his amenity, for he indulged a 
hearty humour, and loved the harmless jest. Irony in his 
hand was crushing, but he indulged it only in exposure of un- 
worthy artifices, and unseemly annoyances. His services to the 
Church might have entitled him to a supreme authority, but 
he never obtruded his sentiments, or claimed more than his 
Presbyterian rank. With his brethren he maintained unin- 
terrupted amity ; if he differed with any one, he cherished no 
resentment, but on the first opportunity moved for recon- 
ciliation. He was beloved by children, and a favourite in 
female society. His correspondence with Mrs Bowes, also 
with Mrs Lock, conducted amidst abounding anxieties, testify 
to the gentleness of his heart.^ 

Surrounded by enemies, Knox was often misrepresented, 
but he invariably dragged his accuser to the light, and before 
the world proved the falsity of his charge. " What I have been 

1 Knox's Works, Ediiik 1846-1864, vol. iii., pp. 336-402; vol. vi., pp. 


to my country," said he in his old age, " albeit this unthankful 
age will not know, yet the ages to come will be compelled to 
bear witness to the truth. And thus I cease, requiring of all 
men that have anything to oppose against me that they may 
do it so plainly, as that I may make myself and all my 
doings manifest to the world. For to me it seemeth a thing 
unreasonable, that in this my decrepit age, I shall be com- 
pelled to fight against shadows and howlets. that dare not 
abide the light." ^ Prematurely old, Knox was in his latter 
years subject to various ailments ; his constitution never 
rallied from his confinement in the galleys. His figure was 
not commanding, for he was short of stature, but he possessed 
a countenance in which the least observant might discover 
courage and penetration. In his strong jaw and compressed 
lips might be remarked that decision and pertinacity which 
were his peculiar characteristics. He wore a long flowing 
beard, which when it became grey, must have considerably 
enhanced the gravity of his presence. Of his facial aspects our 
knowledge is chiefly derived from Hondius's engraving of his 
portrait in Verheiden's " Praestantium Aliquot Theologorum," 
published at the Hague in 1602. This engraving is evidently 
taken from the likeness of which Beza, in his " Icones," pub- 
lished at Geneva in 1580, has presented a woodcut. It was 
sent to Beza by James VI., along with a likeness of himself. 
The king's payment to Vaensoun or Fanson, a Scottish artist, 
is entered in the Treasurer's accounts. The Reformer was 
indeed deceased some years before its execution, but it is 
certain that the artist must have seen a portrait of him, 
probably in the possession of his family ; for Beza, who knew 

1 Calderwood's History of the Kirk of Scotland, Wodrow edit., vol, iii., 
p. 54.. 


him personally, could not have been deceived.^ Hondius's 
engraving is reproduced as a frontispiece to the present work. 
The Eeformer's mortal remains were, amidst a vast 
assemblage, conveyed from his house to St Giles's churchyard 
on Wednesday, 26th November. The Earl of Morton, elected 
regent on the day of the Reformer's death, stood by the 
grave, and as the body was lowered into it expressed these 
words of eloge : 

"There, in the dust, lies one 
Who never feared the face of man ; 
Tho' threaten'd oft with dag and dagger, 
He clos'd his life in peace and honour." 

St Giles's churchyard was in the year 1633 discontinued as 
a place of interment, and it has since been built upon, and 
partly used as a paved street. In that portion of it known 
as Parliament Close, a pavement stone inscribed with the 
initials "J. K., 1572," is intended to denote the Reformer's 
grave, but it is held on competent authority that the equestrian 
statue of Charles II., a few yards to the eastward, occupies 
the actual spot.^ It is to be regretted that among the monu- 
ments of the illustrious which stud the northern capital no 
statue or cenotaph has been reared to John Knox, to whom, 
next to the patriots Wallace and Bruce, Scotsmen are indebted 
for having inspired in them that love of liberty which has 
become a characteristic of the race. 

The Reformer's will, dated 13th May 1572, was con- 

^ See a learned and exhaustive paper by the late Mr Drummond, R.S.A., 
on portraits of Knox and Buchanan in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland, vol. xi., pp. 237-264. In this paper Mr Drummoud demonstrates 
that the portrait in the Somerville Collection, believed by Mr Carlyle to repre- 
sent the Scottish Reformer, is without the slightest claim to be considered 

^ See Dr Daniel Wilson's Memorials of Edinburgh, vol. i., p. 84. 


firmed in the Commissary Court of Edinburgh on the loth 
January following. Carefully transcribed from the "Commis- 
sariat Eegister " for the present work, it is presented without 

^ " The Testament Testamentare and Inventare of the guidis, 
geir, sowmes of money, and dettis pertening to vm- 
quhile Johnne Knox, minister of the evangell of Christ 
Jesus, the tyme of his deceis, quha deceissit vpoun the 
xxiiij day of November, The zeir of God J"' V'^ Lxxij 
zeiris, ffaithfullie maid and gevin vp be him self vpoun 
the xiij day of Maii, the zeir of God foirsaid, and 
pairtlie be margaret Stewart, his relict, Quhome, with 
Martha, margaret, and Elizabeth Knoxis, his dochteris, 
he vpoun the xiij day of Maii, in his lattirwill vnder- 
writtin, nominat his executouris testamentaris, as the 
samin of the dait foirsaid beiris. 

" In the first, the said vmquhile Johnne grantit him to half 
had, the tyme foirsaid, Tua syluer drinking cowpis, merkit with 
J. K. M. on the ane syde, and on the vther syde with E. B. N., 
contening xxv vnces or thairby ; tua salt fatts of syluer, of 
xiiij vnce vecht and ane half; auchtene syluer spvnes, con- 
tening XX \Tice wecht and a quarter — price of the vnce, xxvj^ 
viij^. Summa — ffoureskoir pundis. Off the quhilk syluer 
work abonewrittin, the airschip is to be deducit and takin of. 
Item, the said Margaret, ane of the sadis executouris, grantit 
that the said vmquhile Johnne had, the tyme of his deceis 
foirsaid, in pois ane hundretht pundis. Item, his buikis, 
alswell vpoun the Scriptures as vthir prophane authouris, 
wortht vj^^ and x". Item, in vtensile and domicile, the air- 
schip being deducit, to the availl of xxx^\ Summa inventarii 
— ij'^ Ixxxxvj^^ vj^ viij**. 

" Ffollowis the dettis awing to the deid: Item, yair wes awing 
to the said vmquhile Johnne, the tyme of his deceis foirsaid, be 

^ Edinb. Com. Reg., Testaments, vol. ii. 


Andro, Lord Stewart of Vchiltrie, his guid-fader, the sowme of 
Ixxx^ of lent money. Item, be William Fiddes, baxter, x", 
restand awand to the said vmquhile Johnne, of quheit quhilk 
he ressaiiit to gif breid for. Item, be Agnes Weymis, relict of 
vmquhile Andro Mernis, cietiner of St Androis, xix^^ xf i*^ j*'^ 
for the rest of beir quhilk scho ressauit fra the said vmquhile 
Johnne to mak aill of. Item, be Margaret Spens, spous to 
Mr Eobert Glen, xviij^' xv« iij<^, for beir quhilk scho ressauit 
fra the said vmquhile to delyuer aill of. Item, restand awand 
to the said vmquhile Johnne, the tyme foirsaid, for ane pairt 
of his pensioun quhilk he had furth of the kirk of Hading- 
toun, be the persones following, the victuales vnderwrittin of 
the zeiris and cropes rex"® vnderspecifeit, viz., of the crope 
and zeir of God i^ v*' Ixxj zeiris, be James Fiddes, for ane 
pairt of his teyndis of the Nunland, liand in the parochin of 
Hadingtoun, ane boll of quheit, ane boll ane firlote beir, vij 
bollis aittis. Be Adame Ethingtoun in Quhitrig, ane boll of 
quheit, sex bollis aittis. Price of the boll of quheit the said 
zeir, P; price of the boll of beir the said zeir, twa merkis ; and 
price of the boll of aittis the samin zeir, xx^ Summa — xix^^ 
xiij^ iiij^. Item, be the said James Fiddes, for his teyndis of 
the saidis landis of Nunland, of the crope and zeir of God 
jm yc Ixxij zeiris, ane boll of quheit, ane boll ane firlote beir, 
sevin bollis aittis. Be James Oliphant and Robert Hepburne, 
for thair teyndis of the landis of Stenestoun, liand within the 
said parochin, the said zeir, sex bollis quheit, sex bollis beir, 
and XX bollis aittis. Be the said Adame Ethingtoun in 
Quhitrig, for his teyndis of the saidis landis, the said zeir, 
ane boll of quheit, ane boll of beir, and sex bollis aittis. 
Be Johnne Gulanis wyfe in Aulderstoun, for hir teyndis 
thairof, of the zeir foirsaid, twa bollis quheit, twa bollis 
beir, and viij bollis aittis. Price of the boll of quheit the 
said zeir, P; price of the boll beir the said zeir, twa merkis ; 
and price of the boll aittis the same zeir, xx^ Summa — 
Ixxix^' xiij" iiij^. Item, restand awand to the said vmquhile 
Johnne, the tyme of his deceis foirsaid, be the persones 


following, the sowmes of money and victuale vnderwrittin, 
as for ane pairt of his stipend assignit to him for seruing in 
the ministrie, of the said crope and zeir of God i™ y'' Ixxj 
zeiris. In the first, be Margaret Haldane, Lady Colingtoun, 
for the lambes term in the said zeir, xxxiij^^ vj^ viij^- Be Mr 
Eobert Whynrahame, coUectour of Fyfe, xxxij^^ xvij^ for the 
said vmquhile Johnis victuale of the said pensioun sauld be 
him the said zeir. Be Eobert Bennet, thrie firlettis quheit, 
price of the boll, P. Summa — xlvij^ vj^. Item, restand awand 
to the said vmquhile Johnne the victuale vnderspecifeit, as 
for ane pairt of his said stipend, the crop and zeir of God 
[m yc ixxij zeiris. In the first, be Williame Merchingstoun in 
Inueresk, thre boUis twa firlottis twa pectis quheit. Be Wil- 
liame Vernour thair, tua bollis tua firlottis two pectis quheit. 
Be George Forman thair, thre bollis tw^a firlottis twa pectis 
quheit. Be Eobert Dowglas thair, thre bollis tw^a firlottis 
twa pectis quheit. Be Johnne Craunstoun in Moncktounhall, 
thre bollis thre firlottis quheit. Be Johnne Kers thair, thre 
bollis ane firlot twa pectis quheit. Be Thomas Thomsone 
thair, twa bolls twa firlottis tw^a pectis quheit. Be Adame 
Wricht, twa bollis ane firlot quheit. Be Williame Johnestoun, 
foure bollis ane firlot quheit. Be Dauid Hill in Inuersk, 
ane boll thre firlotts three pectis quheit, extenden to tua 
chalder quheit. Price of the boll of quheit the said zeir, P. 
Summa — Ixxx^^ Be Helen e Cowtis, relict of vmquhile 
Eichard Prestoun of Quhithill, ane chalder beir. Be Jonet 
Betoun in Litill IVIonktoun, elle\dn bollis beir. Be Williame 
Wauchope of Nudry Merschell, for the teyndis of the landis 
of Calcoittis, thre bollis beir. Be Johnne Hill of that ilk, 
twa bollis beir. Be the tennentis of the parochin of Kyng- 
lassie, four chalderis beir as followis : Be Johnne Boswall in 
Gaitmylk, ane chalder beir ; William Swyne thair, viij bollis 
beir; George Tod in Kynninmouth, ane chalder beir; Helene 
Mertyne in Kyngiassie, and William Boswall, hir sone, tuelf 
bollis beir; William Boswall in Stintoun, xij bollis beir — 
extenden in the haill to sex chalderis beir, price of the boll 


ourheid, tua merkis ; summa — ane hundretht tuentie aucht 
pundis. Be the tennentis of the parochin of Newbiruschyre, 
in Fyffe, foure chalderis aittis as followis, viz.: Williame 
Dischingtoim in Rauveldry, fourtene bollis aittis ; Thome 
Alchenoiir thair, xiiij bollis beir; Johnne Zoimg, in the 
Coitts, sex bollis aitts. Be Dauid Sympsoun thair, sex bollis 
aittis ; and be Andro thair, sex bollis aittis. Be 

Dauid Johnestoun in Moutturpie, aucht bollis aittis. Be 
Sympsoun, foure bollis aittis. Price of the boll 
ourheid, xx^; summa — lxiiij'\ Item, resting awand to the 
said vmquhile Johnne the sowmes vnderspecifeit, as for ane 
pairt of the syluer of his said stipend of the said zeir of God 
jm yc Ixxij zeiris. In the first, be James Rig of Carberry, 
for the half teynd of Cousland, xxxiij^' Yj^ viij*^. Be 
Lady Edmestoun, spous to Andro Ker of Hirsell, knycht, 
for the vther half of the teyndis of the landis foirsaidis, 
xxxiij'^ vj^ viij*^. Be the said Margaret Haldane, Lady 
Colingtoun, for the teynd of Haillis, Ixvj^^ xiij^ iiij<*. Be Robert 
Bennet, xxxiiij^^ vj^ viij^. Be Mr James Macgill of Ran- 
kelour Nethir, for his males of the landis of Pinkie, for the 
termes of Witsonday and Mertymes, in the said zeir of God 
jm yc ixxij zeiris, Ij" vj^ viij^, and als resting be him of the 
males of the landis foirsaidis of the zeir of God i™ v° Ixx 
zeiris, xlv^ viij'^. Be the executouris of vmquhile Gilbert 
Edmestoun, for the male?: of the landis of Wowmet, of the 
terme of Mertymes the said zeir of God i"* v*' Ixxij zeiris, 
xxij^* viij^. Be Jonet Betoun, for the males of Litill Monk- 
toun, nyne pundis. Be the said Lady Edmestoun 

and Archibald Prestoun of Wallefeild, for the males of 
Netoun, xiiij ^* xj' vj<*. Be James Rig of Carberry, for the 
maill thairof, xx^\ Item, be of Nudry, for the 

males of Calcottes, thre pundis. Be Robert Dowglas in 
Inuersk, for his males, iij"'' xix^ iiij^. Be William Merchins- 
toun thair, for his few maill, xxvijs x^. 

" Summa of the dettis abonewrittin awing to the ded — viij*^ 
xxx'' xix" vj**. 



" Na dettis awing be the deicl. 

" Summa of the inventare, with the detts awing to the deid 
— j"^ j*^ xxvj^ xix^ vj'^ To be diuidit in thre pairtis. The 
deidis pairt thairof extends to iij*^ Ixxv^^ xiij^ ij^. 

" Ffollowis the lattirwill and legacie : Lord Jesus, I com- 
mend my trublit spreit in Thy protectioun and defence, 
and Thy trublit Kirk to Thy mercie. Becaus I haif had 
to do with dyuers personages of the ministrie, quh air unto 
God of His mercie erectit me within this reahne, my dewetie 
cravis that I sail leve vnto thaim now ane testimony of my 
mynd. And first, vnto the Papistis and to the vnthankfull 
warld I say, that althocht my lyfe lies bene vnto thaim 
odious, and that oftintymes thai haif socht my destructioun 
and the destructioun of the Kirk, quhilk God of His mercie 
lies plantit within this realme, and hes alwayis preservit and 
kepit the samin fra tliair crewale interprysis, zit to thaim I 
am compellit to say that onles thai spedele repent, my de- 
pairting of this lyfe salbe to thaim the gretest calamitie 
that euir zit hes apprehendit thaim. Sum small apperance 
thai mai zit haif in my lyfe gif thai haif grace to se. Ane deid 
man haif I bene almaist thir twa zeiris last bipast, and zit I 
wald that thai suld rypelie considder in quhat bettir estait 
thai and thair materis standis in than it hes done befoir, 
and thai haif hard of lang tyme befoir threatnit ; bot becaus 
thai will not admit me for ane admoniser, I gif thaim ouir to 
the jugement of Him quha knawis the hartis of all, and will 
disclose the secretis thairof in dew tyme ; and this far to the 
Papistis. To the faithfall, God, befoir His Sone Jesus Christ, 
and befoir His halie angellis, I protest that God be my mouth, 
be I newir so abiect, hes schawin to zow His trewth in all 
simplicitie. Nane I haif corrupted, nane I haif defraudit ; 
merchandice haif I not maid, to Godis glorie I write, of the 
glorious evangell of Jesus Christ, bot according to the mesour 
of the grace graunted vnto me I haif dividit the sermont of 
trewth t in just pairtis, beatin doun the pryde of the proude 
in all that did declair thair rebellioun aganis God, according 



as God in His law gevis to me zit testimonie ; and raising vp 
the consciences trublit with the knawlesje of their awin 
sinnes, be the declairing of Jesus Christ, the strenth of 
His death, and the michtie operatioun of His resurrectioun 
in the hartis of the faithfull. Off this I say I haif ane 
testimony this day in my conscience befoir God howthat- 
evir the warld rage. Be constant, thairfoir, in doctrine that 
anis publictlie ye haif professit. Lat not sclandrous dayis 
draw zow away fra Jesus Christ, nathir lat the prosperitie of 
the wickit move zow to follow it nor thame; ffor howsoeuir it 
be that God appeiris to neglect His awin for ane seasoun, 
zit He remains ane just Juge, quha nathir can nor wiU 
justefie the wickit. I am not ignorant that mony wald that 
I suld entir in particulare determinatioune of thir present 
trubles, to quhome I planelie and simplie answer, that as I 
neuir excedit the boundis of God's Scriptures, sua will I not 
do in this pairt by Godis grace. Bot heirof I am assurit be 
Him quha nathir can dissave nor be dissavit, that the castell 
of Edinburght, in the quhilk all the murthour, all the truble, 
and the haill distructioun of this puir comraounweill, wes 
inventit, and, as our awin eis may witnes, by thaim and by 
thair mantenaris wes put in executioun, sail cum to destruc- 
tioun, mantene it quha salist. The destructioun, I say, of 
body and saule, except thai repent. I luik not to the momen- 
tary prosperitie of the wicked, ze, not althocht thai suld 
remane conquerouris to the cuming of our I^rd Jesus, bot I 
luik to this sentence, that quhasaeuir scheddis innocent bluid 
defyles the land and provockis Godis wraith aganis himself 
and the land, vntill his bluid be sched agane be ordour of 
law to satisfie Godis anger. Tliis is not the first tyme that 
ze haif hard this sentence ; althocht that mony at all tymes 
sturrit at sik severitie, I zit afferme the same, being reddy to 
entir to gif compt befoir His maiestie of ye stewartschip He 
committit vnto me. I knaw in my death the rumouris salbe 
strange, bot be ze not trublit abone mesour, belouit in the 
Lord Jesus. Bot zit agane I say, remane constant in the 


trewtlit, and He qiiha of His mercie sent me, conductit me, 
and prosperit the work in my hand aganis Sathan, Avill pro- 
vide for zow abimdantlie quhen that ather my bluid sail wattir 
the doctrine taiicht be me, or He of His mercie vtherwayis 
provide to put ane end to this my battel! My executouris I 
mak, constitute, and ordane Margaret Stewart, my spous, 
Martha, Margaret, and Elizabeth Knoxis, my dochteris, and 
the faithfuU to be oursmen. To my twa sones, Nathanaell 
and Eleazare Knoxis, I vnfenedlie leif that same benedic- 
tioun that thair darrest moder, Mariorie Bows, left vnto thaim — 
to wit, that God, for His Sone Christ Jesus' saik, wald of His 
mercie mak thaim His trew feireris, and als vpricht worschip- 
peris of Him as ony that euir sprang out of Abrahame's 
loynes, quhairto now as than, I fra my trublit hart say amen. 
Ffarther, I half delyuerit be Maister Eandulphe to Mr Eobert 
Bows, shereff of the bischoprik, and bruder to the said 
Mariorie, my vmquhile darrest spous, the sowme of fyve 
hundreth pundis of Scottis money, to the vtilitie and proffett 
of my sadis tua sones. The quhilk money is that pairt of 
substance that fell or pertenit to thaim be the deceis of 
Mariorie Bows, thair moder, of blissit memory, and augmentit 
be me as I mycht or may spair to mak out the said sowme, 
for I ressauit of thairis bot ane hundreth merkis Stirling, 
quhilk I of my povirtie extendit to fyve hundretht pundis 
Scottis, and that in contentatioun of thair bairnis pairt of 
geir quhilkis may fall to thaim be my deceis. Item, I leif 
to my saidis twa sones tua syluer drinking cowpis. The ane 
of thaim is merkit with J. K. M. on the ane syde, and on the 
other syde with E. B. X. ; and in lyke maner the vther, with 
the same merk and letres — the wecht of the saidis tua cuipis 
contenand xxij vnce or thairby. Tua saltfattis of syluer, 
and xviij syluer spvnes, weyand xxxiiij z. and ane quarter 
vnces — price of the vnce ourheid, xxvj^ viij'^. The quhilkis 
cuipis, saltfattis, and spvnes I leif in keping to the said 
Margaret, my spous, quhill my saidis sones be of the aige of 
xxj zeiris, at the quhilk tyme I ordane and commandis hir 


to delyuer the samin to my saidis sones, or to ony ane of 
thaim, gif be deceis the vther faillis. Item, I leif also to my 
saidis sones ane pairt of my saidis buikis, of the availl of 
xxx^>. And failzeing of my sadis sones and thair airis, I ordane 
the foirsadis fyve hundretht pundis, with the syluer ciiipis, 
spvnes, saltfattis, and buikis, to return agane as eftir follows, 
that is to say, the ane equale half thairof to the said Margaret, 
my spous, and my sadis thre dochteris, and the vther half of 
the samin to my bruder Williame Knox, and his airis quhat- 
sumeuir. Item, I leif to my said spous, Margaret Stewart, the 
aucht hundretht merkis quhilkis ar laid vpoun the landis of 
Pennymoir, quhairin scho is infeft be Andro, Lord Stewart of 
Vchiltrie, my fader-of-law; and failzeing of the said Margaret, 
I leif the samin to my sadis thre dochteris ; and failzeing of 
thaim, I leif the samin to the said Andro, Lord Stewart of 
Vchiltrie, and his airis quhatsumeuir, chargeing and requyring 
my said fader-of-law and his airis, as thai will answer befoir 
that incorruptible Juge, the Lord Jesus, that thai suffer not 
my sad spous and children to be defraudit or evill payit of 
the males and annual rent of the saidis landis during the 
non-redemptioun of the samin. Item, I leif to Paule Knox, 
my bruder sone, ane hundretht pundis, quhilk lyis in 
wodset vpoun Eobert Campbellis landis in Kynzeancleucht, 
and quhairin the said Paule is ellis infeft, and that to be ane 
help to hald him at the senilis. And as concerning the rest 
of my haill guidis quhatsumeuir, I leif to be dividit betuix 
my sad spous and my sadis thre dochteris ; and becaus my 
said spous man tak the cair of my sadis dochteris, and faith- 
fullie travell for thair guid nurishment and vpbringing, thair- 
foir I leif my said spous the vse of thair geir, quhill thai be 
mareit or cum to perfite age, at quhilk tyme I ordane thaim 
euery ane, as the tyme approches, to haif thair awin that to 
thaim apperteins. Sic subscribitur, Johne Knox; Johne Adame- 
soun, witnes; Eo*Watsoun,witnes; Johne Johnestoun, witnes. 
" Qtwtta gratis. — The quote of this testament is gevin gratis 
at speceale command of my lordis commissaris : 


"We, M"« Eobert Maitland, &c., Commissaris of Ed^ 
speciallie constitiit for confirmatioim of testamentis, be the 
tennour heirof, ratefeis, approuis, and coufermis this present 
testament or inuentar, insafar as the samin is deulie and 
lauchfullie maid, of the gudis and geir abonespecifeit alanerlie, 
and gevis and committis the intromissioun with the samin to 
the saidis Margaret Stewart, relict of the said vmquhile Johne 
Knox, Martha, Margaret, and Elizabeth Knoxis, his dochteris, 
his executeris testamentaris nominat be him conforme to 
the lattirwill abonewrittin ; reseruand compt to be maid be 
thame thairof, as accordis of tlie law. And the said Margaret 
Stewart, ane of the saidis executeris, being sworn e, hes maid 
faith trenlie to exerce the said office, and hes fundin cautioun 
that the gudis and geir abonespecifeit salbe fartht cumand 
to all pairteis havand interest, as law will, as ane act maid 
thairvpoun beris." 

A grant of £40 was made by the General Assembly of 
March 1572-3 to Eichard Bannatyne, to enable him to put 
in order Knox's " History of the Church," completed to the 
year 1564; also to arrange the materials for its continua- 
tion, which the Eeformer had collected up to the period of his 

As has been related, Knox w^as twice married. By his first 
wife, Marjory Bowes, he had two sons, Nathaniel and Eleazer. 
Nathaniel, the elder son, was born at Geneva in May 1557, 
and baptized on the 23d of that month— William Whitting- 
ham, subsequently Dean of Durham, being his godfather. 
On his father's second marriage in March 1563-4, Nathaniel 
and his brother Eleazer were taken charge of by their 
mother's relatives. For their behoof, as appears by his will, 
the Eeformer had granted them their mother's patrimony of 
100 merks sterling, with such an addition from his own 
funds as to make up a sum of £500 Scottish money. 


The Bowes family continued to regard the Reformer with 
unfriendly feelings. Just eight days after his death his sons 
were, on the 2d December 1572, matriculated of the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge. Nathaniel was B.A. 1576-7, and was 
admitted a Fellow of St John's College on the Lady 
Margaret's foundation, 1577. In the registers of St John's 
College are the following entries : 

"Ego, Nathanael Knox, Richmond, admissus sum in dis- 
cipulum pro D[omina] fund[atrice], 6 Novembris [1573]." 

"Ego, Nathanael Knox Richmondiensis, admissus sum 
Socius pro Domina fundatrice [1577], Nathanael Knox." 

In his " Athense Cantabrigienses," Mr Cooper supposes that 
Nathaniel was that " Mr Knox " who personated " Hastingus, 
miles calligatus," in Dr Legge's play of " Richardus Tertius," 
acted in St John's College in 1579. An inceptive M.A., he 
died of a tertian ague, after an illness of fourteen days. He 
was buried at Cambridge on the 28th May 1580.^ 

Eleazer Knox, the Reformer's younger son, was born at 
Geneva, and there baptized on the 29th November 1558, 
Miles Coverdale, formerly Bishop of Exeter, being witness or 
godfather. Having matriculated of Cambridge in 1572, his 
tenor of college life is in the registers of St John's College 
indicated thus : 

" Ego, Eleazer Knox, Richmondiensis, admissus sum dis- 
cipulus pro Domina Fundatrice [12 Nov. 1575]." 

" Ego, Eleazer Knox Richmondiensis, admissus sum in 
Socium pro Doctore Keyton [a bye-founder], 22 Mar. A.D. 

"Eleazer Knox, electus prselector, 1 Aprilis 1580." 

"Eleazer Knox, electus sublector, 5 Julij 1582." 

1 Knox's Works, voL vi. , preface by Dr David Laing, pp. Ixii.-Ixiv. 


"Eleazer Knox, examinator Ehetoricse lectionis, 5 Julij 

" Eleazer Knox, electus concionator in festo Sancti Michaelis 
[29 Sept.] 1587." 

" Ego, Eleazer Knox admissus Ju[nior] Decanus, 14 Decem- 
bris 1587." 

Eleazer Knox was, on the 17th May 1587, collated to the 
vicarage of Clacton Magna, in the archdeaconry of Col- 
chester. According to marginal notes on the register, he 
died on the 23d May 1591, and was buried in the chapel of 
St John's Colle^e.i 

Both Nathaniel and Eleazer Knox died unmarried. 

John Knox, as has been related, married, secondly, Mar- 
garet Stewart, in March 1563-4. Married at sixteen, Mrs 
Knox became a widow at the age of twenty-four. By the 
General Assembly of March 1572-3, she was, at the sug- 
gestion of the Eegent Morton, allowed for the year succeed- 
ing his death the Eeformer's "pension" of 500 merks. In 
1574 she married Andrew Ker of Faldonsyde,^ Eoxburgh- 
shire. A zealous promoter of the Eeformation, Ker joined 
his cousin. Lord Euthven, in the conspiracy against Eiccio. 
By a charter of alienation, confirmed 8th April 1574, and 
renewed 21st March 1585-6, he granted as a provision to 
his wife, Margaret Stewart, in her widowhood, the liferent 
of a third of lands in Haddingtonshire, which he had 
inherited from his mother, Margaret Halyburton, one of the 
co-heiresses of the sixth Lord Halyburton of Dirleton. 

By the death of Andrew Ker on the 19th December 1599, 

^ Knox's Works, vol. vi., preface by Dr David Laing, pp. Ixiv., Ixv. 

2 The estate of Faldonsyde is pleasantly situated on the right bank of the 
Tweed, immediately to the westAvard of Abbotsford. Sir Walter Scott 
dreamed of adding it to Abbotsford (Lockhart's Life of Scott, passim). 


Margaret Stewart became a widow for the second time. 
She died about the year 1612. One of the children of her 
second marriage, Mr John Ker, minister of Salt Preston 
(now Prestonpans), attained eminence in the Church. One 
of his sons, Mr Andrew Ker, succeeded Sir Archibald John- 
ston of Warriston as clerk of the General Assembly. He 
was appointed one of the English Judges by Cromwell, but 
was deprived. He died in 1672.^ 

Martha Knox, eldest daughter of John Knox by his 
second wife, Margaret Stewart, was born about the close of 
the year 1565. In May 1584 she became the third wife of 
Alexander Fairlie, eldest son of Eobert Fairlie of Braid, 
Edinburgh, an attached friend of the Eeformer. By her 
marriage-contract, dated 7th April 1584, her stepfather, 
Andrew Ker, assigned her as dowry 1000 merks, to be in- 
vested by her husband for the benefit of their children. 
She died 1st December 1592, about the age of twenty- 
seven. As appears by her will, she left three sons, John, 
William, and Nathaniel ; also a daughter, Elspet. John and 
William graduated at the University of Edinburgh on the 
25th July 1607. Their line is believed to be extinct. 

By various writers, a tradition has been referred to, in 
Avhich Mr James Fleming, minister of Bathans, is described 
as husband of Martha Knox, the Eeformer's eldest daughter. 
This is certainly groundless. The tradition, it is possible, 
may have derived its origin from a matrimonial union sub- 
sisting between Mr Fleming and Elspet Fairlie, the Ee- 
former's granddaughter. Her personal history is very 
imperfectly known ; while it appears that Mr Fleming, who 
was admitted minister of Bathans or Yester in 1625, gradu- 

1 Laing's preface to Knox's Works, vi., p. Ixviii. 


ated at the University of Edinburgh fifteen years previously. 
He died in 1653 at the age of about sixty-three, leaving a 
widow, Jean Livingstone. But he had contracted, it is said, 
a former marriage, and his first wife may have been Elspet 
Fairlie. There was born of Mr Fleming's first marriage, a 
daughter, Janet. This daughter married, in 1640, Mr James 
Forbes, minister of Abercorn, by whom she had two daughters, 
Janet and Catherine; she died in April 1671.^ 

Margaret Knox, the Eeformer's second daughter, was born 
about the year 1567. Before the 13th ^N'ovember 1599, she 
married Zachary Pont, eldest son of Ptobert Pont, minister 
of St Cuthbert's, and a Lord of Session.^ Zachary Pont and 
his brother Timothy, the distinguished topographer, matri- 
culated as students of St Leonard's College, St Andrews, in 
1579, and there gTaduated about 1583. Zachary Pont was, 
on the 28th October 1590, appointed " chief printer within 
the realm." Portioner of Shyrismylne, an estate in the lord- 
ship of Culross, and county of Perth, he, on the 8th April 
1596, obtained from his brother-in-law, Mr John Welsh, 
the loan of 1000 merks on a redeemable bond, engaging to 
pay annually to Mr Welsh the sum of 100 merks. Owing 
to embarrassed circumstances, Mr Pont failed to make the 
annual payment, and Mr Welsh in 1601 registered the 
bond, in order to realise his loan.^ In the same year Pont 
accepted the ministerial charge of the united parishes of 
Bower and Watten, in the county of Caithness. He was 
appointed Archdeacon of Caithness in 1608. He resigned 
his cure in 1610, and died prior to the 29th January 1619. 

1 Fasti EccL Scot., i. 164, 363. ^ Ibid., iii. 356. 

3 Life of John Welsh, minister of Ayr, by the Rev. James Young, Edinb. 
1866, 8vo, pp. 55-111. 


A family tradition referred to by Dr M'Crie asserts that 
a daughter of John Knox married "a Mr Baillie of the 
Jerviswood family," while, in its supposed verification, a 
watch, in possession of one of Mr Baillie's descendants, is 
described as being received by the Reformer from Queen 
Mary on an occasion when she sought to incline him to her 
measures.^ The confirmatory evidence will not avail, since 
the firs^ watches used in England were imported from Ger- 
many in 1577, and there is no reason to believe that they 
were known in Scotland during the Eeformer's lifetime. If 
Mrs Margaret Pont or Knox accepted in her widowhood the 
hand of a member of the house of Baillie, it is withal impro- 
bable, considering her advanced age, that she thereafter added 
to the number of the Eeformer's descendants. 

By his wife, Margaret Knox, Zachary Pont had two sons, 
Robert and Samuel. Mr Pont, minister of Ramelton, in 
Ireland, was probably one of his descendants.^ The line is 

Elizabeth, third and youngest daughter of John Knox, 
was born about the year 1570. She married, in 1594, Mr 
John Welsh, whose ministerial career is intimately asso- 
ciated with the history of his period. 

The family of Welsh, the name being variously spelt 
Walsh, Welsche, and Velshe, possessed lands in the county 
of Dumfries. Nicolas Welsh was Abbot of Tongland in 1488. 
Dean Robert Welsh, vicar of Tynron, and John Welsh, vicar 
of Dunscore, embraced the Protestant doctrines in 1560, 
and held ofhces in the Reformed Church. John Welsh, 
proprietor of CoUiston, and of other lands in the parishes of 

1 M'Crie's Life of John Knox, Edinb, 1818, vol. ii., p. 449. 
^ Fasti Eccl. Scot., iii. 356. 


Dunscore and Holywood, espoused Marion Greir, of a family 
of that name, whicli owned the lands of Barjarg, Dalgonar, 
and Castlemadie, in the county of Dumfries. 

By his wife, IMarion Greir, John Welsh was father of three 
sons and two daughters. Margaret, the elder daughter, 
married Hector Maxwell of Fourmerkland. Marion, younger 
daughter, died unmarried. David, the eldest son, succeeded 
his father in the lands of Colliston and others. He was 
living in 1619. Cuthbert, third and youngest son, suc- 
ceeded to the lands of Burnfitt and others, in the parish of 
Holywood, which had belonged to his paternal uncle, Cuth- 
bert Welsh. Dying before the 24th June 1629, he was suc- 
ceeded by his son, John, who at the same time was served 
heir to his brother Thomas, in certain lands within the 
barony of Holywood.^ 

John Welsh, second son of John Welsh and Marion Greir, 
was born at Colliston about the year 1568. According to 
Kirkton, he, when a schoolboy, attached himself to a party 
of gipsies, but after a time returned to his father's house 
subdued and repentant. Having studied at the grammar 
school of Dumfries, he entered the University of Edinburgh, 
where, in August 1588, he graduated as Master of Arts.^ 
Though considerably under the age then prescribed for 
admission to a parochial charge, he was, in 1589, ordained 
minister at Selkirk, his charge comprehending the parishes 
of St Marie Kirk, New Kirk of Ettrick, Eankilburn, and 
Ashkirk. By the Privy Council he was, on the 6th March 
1590, nominated one of three " for maintaining and preserving 
the true religion in the Forest and Tweeddale." ^ On the 

1 Young's Life of Welsh, pp. 9-12. 2 jj^-^^^ pp^ i2-28. 

3 Fasti Ecd. Scot., i. 539. 


11th March 1594, he was translated to Kirkcudbright, where 
he had diarge of the adjoining parishes of Dunrod, Galtway, 
and Kirkcornock. He was, in March 1596, appointed one of 
the visitors for Nithsdale, Annandale, Lauderdale, Eskdale, 
and Ewesdale. In December of the same year, he, on the 
appointment of his brethren, preached in the High Church of 
Edinburgh. Having in his discourse censured the ecclesias- 
tical policy of the king and his advisers, he was summoned 
before the Privy Council, and had to secure his safety by 
flight. After a period of six months, he was allowed to 
resume his pastoral duties. In August 1600 he became 
colleague to John Porterfield, minister of Ayr. Consequent 
on so many persons flocking to his ministry, the town council 
of Ayr resolved in March 1603 to erect a new parish church, 
and on the death of his colleague in 1604, his stipend was 
augmented from 300 to 400 merks. Having attended the 
General Assembly held at Aberdeen in July 1605, in opposi- 
tion to the royal will, he was again summoned before the 
Privy Council, and, along with Mr John Forbes, minister of 
Alford, who had acted as moderator, was imprisoned in 
Blackness Castle. Brought before the Council in October 
with four others, he and his brethren denied the right of the 
Court to adjudicate in spiritual concerns. They were con- 
sequently sent back to prison, and in January 1606 were 
tried before the Justiciary Court at Linlithgow on the charge 
of treason. By a majority of nine to six the jury found them 
guilty of declining the jurisdiction of the Privy Council. 
Sentence being deferred, the prisoners were returned to 
Blackness Castle. Subsequently Welsh and Forbes were 
removed to the castle of Edinburgh. In October the king 
signified his will that the offending ministers should be sent 


into exile. They were accordingly, on the 7th November, 
placed in a vessel at Leith, bound for the coast of France. 
Mr Welsh landed at Bordeaux, and at once applied himself 
to the study of the French language. He mastered it in 
about fourteen weeks, and thereafter proceeded to act as a 
Protestant pastor. He successively ministered at Nerac, 
Jonzac, and St Jean d'Angely. For several years after his 
banishment the town council of Ayr granted him the usual 
stipend, and in their records he is described as " the town's 
minister " and " thair weil-belovit pastor." While he minis- 
tered at St Jean d'Angely in 1620, the town was besieged by 
Louis XIII., and a treaty arranged. By the law of France, 
the religion of the sovereign was alone tolerated at the 
place where he was for the time resident. When the king 
remained in the town Mr Welsh conducted his usual services, 
and was consequently summoned to the royal presence. 
Asked by the king why he had ventured to disobey the law, 
he made answer : " If your majesty knew what I preach, you 
would command others, and come yourself to hear it; I 
preach salvation by Jesus Christ ; and your conscience tells 
you that your own works do not merit salvation. I preach 
there is none in rank above your majesty; do those who 
adhere to the Pope say this ? " Pleased with the reply, the 
king said : " Father AVelsh, you shall be my minister." He 
then commanded that Welsh should be protected, and when, 
in the following year the town was forcibly taken, guards 
were placed at his house, and he was borne in safety to 

Wearied of dwelling among strangers, Mr Welsh learned 
with interest that a Scottish colony, to be named New 
Scotland, was about to be planted in North America. With 


the view of joining his countrymen in forming the proposed 
colony, he, in 1622, proceeded to London. Being in feeble 
health, his physicians recommended that he should return to 
Scotland. Banished from thence at the king's command, he 
might not return without the royal sanction, so his wife 
sought an interview with the king. Though not ignorant of 
her descent, James asked her whose daughter she was. 
"My father was John Knox," she replied. "Knox and 
Welsh," exclaimed the king — '• the devil ne'er made sic a 
match as that." " May be," responded Mrs Welsh, " for we 
never speired [asked] his leave." Mrs Welsh now entreated 
the king that her husband might, in his sickness, be allowed 
to re- visit his native country. " He shall," said the king, " if 
he submit himself to the bishops." " Sooner than he should 
do so," said Mrs Welsh, extending her apron, " I would kep 
his head there." She then withdrew from the royal presence. 

Mr Welsh died at London on the 2d April 1622, at the 
age of fifty-three. His remains were consigned to the church- 
yard of St Bodolph, Bishopgate, in a portion of ground pro- 
vided by a lord mayor for the interment of strangers.^ 

Like other Scottish Eeformers, Mr Welsh was firm in 
upholding his conscientious opinions. He was otherwise of 
a gentle disposition; and he preached with a persuasive 
tenderness. By his flock he was greatly beloved. Thirty 
persons from Ayr visited him in France, to condole with him 
in his exile; and after his death his widow was tenderly 
cared for at Ayr by those who had profited by his ministry. 
Mrs Welsh died at Ayr in January 1625. In her will, which 
is dated 8th January 1625, she bequeathed to the poor and 
the hospital of Ayr £40. The residue of her goods (valued 

* Young's Life of Welsh, j)as5im. 


at £4320 Scots) she bequeathed for division among her sons, 
Josias and Nathaniel, and her daughter Louise.^ 

Of the marriage of Mr John AVelsh and Elizabeth Knox 
were born threesons and two daughters. The elder daughter 
died, in September 1614, at Jonsac, in France. Louise, the 
younger daughter, was born in Jonsac in May 1613 ; she 
was alive in 1625, and though her subsequent history is not 
certainly known, it is not improbable that she married and 
settled in Fifeshire, becoming the mother of that "young 
gentlewoman " described as a cousin of Mr John Welsh, the 
deprived minister of Irongray, in the Blackader MS.^ Of 
the three sons, William, the eldest, was a doctor of medicine ; 
he was in Ayr subsequent to his mother's death, and obtained 
service as her nearest heir. Practising as a physician in the 
Netherlands, he was there accidentally killed. Margaret, his 
only child, died previous to the 6th August 1633, when her 
uncle, Josias Welsh, was served as her heir-at-law.^ 

Nathaniel, third son of Mr John Welsh, was a minor at 
the time of his mother's death. Shortly after that event he 
was sent to the grammar school of Aberdeen, where he was 
boarded with Mr David Wedderburn, master of that semi- 
nary. For his board, the town council of Aberdeen, by 
minute dated 25th April 1622, agreed to pay Mr Wedder- 
burn "four score pounds" quarterly, during "the space of 
four years." This sum, it is stated, was derived from a 
capital of 2000 merks wdiich Mr Patrick Copland had, by a 
letter dated at London on the 12tli March preceding, offered 
to send "to the use of the college."* Nathaniel Welsh died 

1 Yoiing's Life of Welsh, p. 411. " ^ee postea. 

^ Tnquisitiones de Tutela, 500. 

■* Extracts from the Council Registers of the Burgh of Aberdeen, printed 
for the Spalding Club, ii. 375, 376. 


young. He was shipwrecked, but saved his life by swimming 
to a desert rock, where he perished from lack of food. His 
body was afterwards found ; it was in the posture of prayer.^ 
Josias Welsh, second son of Mr John Welsh and Elizabeth 
Knox, was educated at Geneva, and in 1617 was sent from 
France to Glasgow, there to complete his studies under the 
care of his father's friend, Eobert Boyd of Trochrig, principal 
of that college. His superiority as a classical scholar led to 
his being appointed Professor of Humanity in the University; 
but being ardent in upholding the Presbyterian policy, he 
became obnoxious to the episcopal party, and so was com- 
pelled to relinquish his office. On the recommendation of 
Mr Eobert Blair, then a regent of Glasgow College, he pro- 
ceeded to the north of Ireland, where a colony from the west 
of Scotland had been lately planted. Eesiding with Mr 
Shaw, a gentleman from Ayrshire, who had probably known 
his father, he preached in his neighbourhood, on the opposite 
side of the Six-Mile Water. For a time he officiated at Old- 
stone, and having been ordained by Andrew Knox, Bishop of 
Eaplioe, who is said to have regarded him as a relative, he 
was, in 1626, settled at Templepatrick, county Antrim, as 
chaplain to Captain Norton. Here he laboured with much 
zeal and acceptance. According to Wodrow he was popu- 
larly styled the " Cock of the Conscience," from the earnest 
and searching nature of his ministrations. His Communion 
services excited a deep interest over a wide tract of country. 
With three other ministers he was, in 1634, suspended by 
Henry Leslie, Bishop of Down. The suspension was after- 
wards withdrawn, but lie and his brethren were finally deposed 
by Bishop Echlin. He now preached in his own house, 
^ Kirktoii in Select Biographies, i. 9. 


addressing a numerous body of persons wlio assembled in his 
garden. Tlirough tlie exposure he contracted a severe illness, 
which proved fatal. During his last hours he was attended 
by his brethren, Mr Eobert Blair and Mr John Livingstone. 
He died on the 23d June 1634. Among his last words were 
these, expressed rapturously, ''Victory, victory for evermore."^ 
Within an enclosure in Templepatrick churchyard a plain 
tombstone marks his grave ; it presents the simple legend : 
" Here lyeth the Body of the Eeverend Mr Josias Welch, 
minister of Templepatrick, who died Anno Dom. 1634."^ 

Josias Welsh, minister of Templepatrick, married subsequent 
to his settlement in Ireland, but his wife's name and the date 
of his marriage have not transpired. As his wife is not men- 
tioned at the time of his death, it is probable she predeceased 
him. Appended to a declaration for settling the Province 
of Ulster, dated Carrickfergus, 23d May 1653, are the names 
of 260 persons, in the counties of Down and Antrim, whom 
Cromwell's commissioners proposed to remove to certain dis- 
tricts in Munster. Among these is named in the " Six-Mile 
Water" quarters, "Captain George Welsh." ^ The Six-Mile 
Water district included the parish of Templepatrick; and those 
enumerated in " the Declaration " were persons obnoxious to 
Cromwell on account of their adhesion to monarchical and 
Presbyterian principles. From these considerations it is not 
improbable that Captain Welsh was a son of the minister of 
Templepatrick. So far as is known, there was in Ulster no 

^ Autobiography and Life of Robert Blair, Edinb. 1848, 8vo, pp. 135, 

2 Young's Life of John Welsh, pp. 413-415 ; History of the Presbyterian 
Church in Ireland, by James Seaton Reid, D.D., Belfast, 1867, 3 vols. 8vo, 
voL i., pp. 112, 113, 138, 180, 181. 

^ Reid's Presbyterian Church, vol. ii., pp. 187, 552. 



other family of the name. The " Declaration " of Cromwell's 
commissioners not having been acted upon, Captain Welsh 
remained in Ulster, but his name does not reappear ; if he 
left descendants they are certainly extinct. 

John Welsh, minister of Kirkpatrick-Irongray, in the 
county of Dumfries, is known to have been a son of Mr 
Josias Welsh. He studied at the University of Glasgow, 
where he graduated in 1647. He was ordained to the 
charge of Kirkpatrick-Irongray, in January 1652-3. Being 
obnoxious to the Government of the Eestoration, he was 
deprived by the Acts of Parliament 11th JunB and of the 
Privy Council 1st October 1662. He was the first who 
preached in the fields, where he drew immense crowds, who 
bore weapons of defence. Beginning in Galloway, he 
preached in the northern parts of England and in the 
counties of Ayr, Perth, Ediijburgh, Haddington, Eoxburgh, 
and Fife. By the Government declared a traitor, a reward, 
first of £400 and afterwards of £500, was offered for his 
apprehension ; he was consequently attended by a number of 
armed persons, who were known as his "body-guard." A 
system of telegraphy was devised to warn him and his com- 
pany of approaching danger. Thus Graham of Claverhouse, 
who rode forty miles in a winter night, in the hope of 
arresting him, was foiled in -the attempt. 

With a frame singularly robust, Mr Welsh could endure 
fatigue and suffer privation to an extent rare even among the 
Covenanters themselves. Kirkton relates that on one occa- 
sion, when sorely pressed, he was three days and two nights 
without sleep — one night being occupied in preaching.^ 

^ Kirkton's Secret and True History of the Church, Ediub. 1817, 4to, 
p. 119. 


Dangerous undertaldngs, he was wont to say, prompted and 
stimulated him. When the Covenanters were defeated at 
BothweU Bridge, he retired to London. He died at 
Wapping on the 9th January 1681, in the house of the 
wido^7^ of Mr Alexander Carmichael, minister of the first 
Scottish church established in the metropolis, and which 
met at Lothbury. His remains were deposited in the grave 
of his paternal grandfather ; his funeral was very numerously 
attended, every dissenting minister in London inviting his 
people to be present. He was married, but died without 

Wodrow relates an anecdote he had received from Mr 
John Loudon, of Fifeshire, respecting two brothers, David 
and James Walker, farmers at Leslie in that county. Eigid 
Presbyterians, promoters of field-preaching, and harbourers 
of the Covenanters, the brothers had become obnoxious to 
Archbishop Sharp. Dining one day at Leslie House with 
their landlord, the Earl of Eothes, the archbishop described 
them as " incendiaries." Affecting to share his displeasure, 
the earl said he would send for the brothers at once, adding 
significantly that they " would give the Government no more 
trouble." As in the evening the earl conducted the arch- 
bishop to his carriage, he remarked that the offenders had 
been secured ; they had, on their landlord's summons, come 
to Leslie House. After the archbishop's departure, the earl 
talked with them about rural affairs ; he then dismissed them 
without a word of censure. Though strongly opposed to the 

^ Her name was Christian Inglis. She latterly became the second wife of 
Mr James Fraser of Brae, minister of Culross. 

2 Fasti Eccl. Scot., ii. 592, 593; Young's Life of John Welsh, Edinb. 1866, 
12mo, pp. 415-417 ; Kirkton's History, p. 219. 


Covenanters, the Earl of Eothes occasionally tolerated them 
out of respect to the countess, who was a warm supporter 
of the Presbyterian cause.^ 

The occasion which so excited the archbishop's displeasure 
was a preaching tour through Fife, undertaken in the 
summer of 1674 by Mr John Welsh, the deprived minister 
of Irongray. In June and July of that year, a number of 
the gentlemen of Fifeshire, who attended his ministry, or 
gave him entertainment, or accompanied him in his pro- 
gresses, were summoned before the Privy Council, and fined 
and imprisoned.^ 

In his " Memoirs," composed when he was confined in the 
prison of the Bass, Mr John Blackader mentions that he was 
acquainted with " a young gentlewoman in Fife, a cousin of 
Mr Welsh," who was an enthusiastic admirer of his preach- 
ing.3 Who this cousin was does not precisely appear ; her 
name is not given, nor any particulars concerning her save 
that on one occasion she proceeded to the parish of Kinneu- 
char [Kilconquhar], at some distance from her abode, to hear 
Mr Welsh preach, being much arrested by a discourse which 
he delivered in her own neighbourhood. Mr Blackader men- 
tions further, that Mr Welsh preached on a Sunday at Leslie, 
when, on account of the reputation which had preceded him, 
the parish church was deserted by all save the Earl of Eothes 
and his household. In the light of subsequent events, we 
incline strongly to hold, as previously stated,^ that Louise, 
daughter of Mr John Welsh of Ayr and Elizabeth Knox, had 

^ Wodrow's Analecta, printed for the Maitland Club, iv. 41, 42. 
2 Law's Memorials, p. 66. 

' Blackader's ''Memoirs" in the "Wodrow MSS., Advocates Library. 
* See 8U2)ra, p. 147. 


married and settled in Fifesliire, somewhere about Leslie. Born 
in 1613, Louise Welsh might have been mother of a daughter 
np-grown in 1674, and who would be correctly described as 
cousin of the ejected minister of Irongray. Her sister, 
another cousin of Mr Welsh, was probably wife of one of the 
brothers Walker, who, it has been shown, were among Mr 
Welsh's more conspicuous supporters. 

From a stray volume of the Baptismal Eegister of Leslie, 
preserved in the library of Worcester College, Oxford, we 
find that David Walker was baptized on the 7th February 
1630, and James Walker on the 30th August 1637. Wodrow 
relates that one of the brothers married, and had a son David, 
who became minister of Temple, Edinburghshire. The de- 
scendants of the minister of Temple have constantly asserted 
a descent from John Knox and his son-in-law, Mr John 
Welsh of Ayr. Mr David Walker of Temple called liis 
second son Josias, the Christian name of the minister of 

Mr David Walker was, it may be inferred from his Christian 
name, son of David, the elder of the Leslie farmers ; he was 
admitted minister of Temple in 1690, having been licensed 
to preach three years previously.^ In 1705 he is in the 
testament-dative of Walter Welsh of Lochquareit, the first- 
named of several persons described as " tutors to, and having 
the best knowledge, in name and on behalf of Walter Welsh, 
son to the said defunct." ^ 

Walter Welsh of Lochquareit was probably a son of 
William Welsh, a parishioner of ISTewbattle, whose name 
appears in the kirk-session records of that parish in 1655, and 
who seems to have been a son of the minister of Temple- 

1 Fasti EccL Scot., i. 308. * Edinb. Com. Reg. 


, patrick. If Mr Josias Welsh left several children, they 
were certainly unprovided for, since he died young ; and his 
wife's lineage being unrecorded, the belief may be hazarded 
that she was the reverse of opulent. She does not seem to 
have long survived her husband — more probably she pre- 
deceased him. One of her sons, we have adduced some 
evidence for believing, made a settlement in Ireland.^ Pro- 
bably the future minister of Irongray was educated by friends 
or relatives in the west of Scotland. If William Welsh was 
one of the children, he may have found an early home under 
the roof-tree of William Knox, a probable relative of the 
Eeformer, and who appears in ISTewbattle parish in 1662 as 
a householder and the father of a family.^ 

Walter Welsh, son of William, named his eldest son 
Josias, probably after the "minister of Templepatrick. As a 
Christian name, Josias was then in Scotland "altogether rare. 

Walter Welsh was a tanner or " skinner" ^ at the Eastmill 
of Newbattle prior to 1691, when he and James Knox (son 
of William Knox) left the parish. As members of the kirk- 
session, their offices were on the 9tli August 1691 declared 
vacant.* Mr Welsh removed to Burnfoot, a hamlet in the 
parish of Dalkeith, where he conducted merchandise.^ He 
married, first, Helen Parkinson,^ member of a sept to be found 
in Ulster, but not in Scotland. He married, secondly, in 
April 1701, Katherine, second daughter of the late Alex- 
ander Crookshank, merchant-burgess of Edinburgh. By 

1 Sujyra, p. 149. « Newbattle Kirk-Session Minute Book. 

3 Lochquareit Writs, Instrument of Inhibition, 8th February 1692. 
^ Newbattle Kirk-Session Minute Book. 

^ He is described as "merchant" in his marriage-contract, dated 9th April 
1701 (Lochquareit Writs). 
^ Tombstone inscription. 


means chiefly of liis second wife's dowry, he was enabled 
to purchase, in 1703, from Walter Scott, the lands of Loch- 
quareit, in the parish of Berth wick, for the sum of 37,000 
merks. The minute of purchase is dated 18th June, and the 
disposition following thereon 27th July; he obtained the 
usual infeftment.^ 

Walter Welsh died at Burnfoot on the 29th June 1705. 
His tombstone in Newbattle churchyard, elaborately sculp- 
tured, is inscribed thus : 

" Here ly's Walter Welsh of Lochquareyt, who died the 
29th of June 1705 ; and Helen Parkinson, his spouse, who 
died the 19 of March 1698 ; and Josias Welsh, their son, who 
died the 15 October 1696 ; and Alexander Welsh, their son, 
who died the 11th of July 1707. 


' * Wisdom and Virtue lys 

Beneath this stone, 
With rare accomplishment, 

Surpassing many one. 
Courageous both, with 

Meekness mixed together, 
A loving husband, parent, 

And a brother, 
A com'teous wife, sweet 

Children here doth ly; 
Ane emblem dear that 

Wee must surely dy." 

By his first wife, Helen Parkinson, Walter Welsh had 
three sons, Josias, Alexander, and Walter, and two daughters, 
Alison and Helen. Helen, the younger daughter, married 
William Hynd, merchant, Dalkeith"; she died in 1732. 
She had a son Edward, who was living in 1729 ; he seems 
to have died unmarried.^ 

1 The original instruments are in the Lochquareit Charter- Chest. 

2 Lochquareit Writs. 


Alison, elder daughter of Walter Welsh, first of Loch- 
quareit, married her cousin, Thomas Welsh ^ of Burnfoot, by 
whom she had three sons, David, Thomas, and George. 
David was born 24th March 1731 ;2 his subsequent history 
is unknown. Thomas engaged in business at Edinburgh ; he 
married, and had one son and several daughters. 

Colonel Welsh, only son of Thomas Welsh, citizen of 
Edinburgh, served in India, where he attained military dis- 
tinction; he subsequently held an important office in the 
administrative department of the British Army. He married 
a celebrated beauty, Miss Maliny Maling, daughter of 
Christopher Thomson Maling, Esq. of West Hemington, Dur- 
ham, and sister of the Countess of Musgrave. He had a son 
and daughter. 

Shirley, youngest daughter of Thomas Welsh of Edin- 
burgh, married, in 1788, David Allan, the eminent historical 
painter. Cherishing certain extravagant notions respecting 
the Jews, she, subsequent to her husband's death, which 
took place in 1796, sailed for India in the hope of there 
discovering the lost tribes. Her brother. Colonel Welsh, 
being made aware of her intention, met her on landing, and 
at length induced her to return home. She had five chil- 
dren, three of whom died in infancy. David Allan, the only 
surviving son, proceeded to India as a cadet in 1806 ; he was 
accidentally drowned. 

Barbara Anne, only surviving daughter of David Allan and 
Shirley Welsh, married Mr Simon, a converted Jew. She 
accompanied him to America. Like her mother, she evinced 
a deep interest in the recovery of the ten tribes. She pub- 
lished, in 1836, an octavo volume, entitled " The Hope of 

^ Dalkeith Parish Register. ^ Edinb. Com. Reg., vol. Ixxiv. 


Israel : Presumptive Evidence that the Aborigines of the 
Western Hemisphere are descended from the Ten Missing 
Tribes." Mrs Simon died at Leith in October 1874. 

George Welsh, one of the three sons of Thomas and Alison 
Welsh, settled at Biirnfoot, where, and at Dalkeith, he suc- 
cessfully traded. Of deep religious convictions, he composed 
"Prayers and Meditations," which, preserved in MS., were 
much valued by his descendants. He married, in 1736, 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Maxwell, heiress of her uncle, 
George Napier, Esq. of Kilmahew Castle, Dumbartonshire, 
representative of the oldest branch of the House of Napier. 
Of the marriage were born three daughters, Alison, Frances, 
and Jean. 

Alison, the eldest daughter, married Alexander Martin of 
the Mains of Salton, Haddingtonshire. Their daugliter, 
EKzabeth Martin, born 1771, married David Hume of 
Castlemains, Haddingtonshire ; she died in 1829. 

Of the marriage of David Hume and Elizabeth Martin 
were born nine sons and five daughters. John, the eldest 
son, perished at sea. Alexander, the second son, was born 
28th January 1795. He rented the lands of Comiston, in 
the county of Edinburgh, and married Catherine, daughter of 
William Dumbreck of Southcoats, uncle of the late Sir 
David Dumbreck, K.C.B., Honorary Physician to the Queen, 
with issue, two sons and four daughters. William Hume, 
third son, was born 20th March 1797. He practised as a 
physician in Coventry, and died unmarried. David Hume, 
fourth son, was born 17th December 1798. He married 
Jane, daughter of Eichard Somner of Mauriston; and died 
without issue. His widow married Charles Maclaren, Esq., 
the eminent Scottish geologist. George Hume, fifth son, born 


12th September 1801, rented the lands of Costerton; he died 

Edward Hume, sixth son of David Hume and Elizabeth 
Martin, was born 24th April 1803. Licensed to preach by 
the Presbytery of Haddington, 12th December 1826, he was, 
in 1829, ordained minister of Heriot, in the county of Edin- 
burgh. He was translated to the parish of Pitsligo, Aber- 
deenshire, in 1834, and there died on the 1st April 1863, at 
the age of sixty. He married, first, in 1835, Marion Keddie, 
of the town of Peebles, by whom he had four sons and four 
daughters. He married, secondly, in 1852, Eliza, daughter 
of William Patton of Devonshaw, captain, 12th Eoyal 
Lancers, with issue, two sons and two daughters. His eldest 
son. Captain David Edward Hume, was, in 1873, elected a 
younger brother of the Trinity House, and in 1874 was 
appointed Superintendent Dockmaster, Port of Hull. 

Thomas David Hume, seventh son of David Hume and 
Elizabeth Martin, was born 24th September 1808. Commis- 
sioned as an army surgeon, he attained the rank of inspector- 
general. As principal medical officer of the Third and 
Fourth Divisions, he served during the war in the Crimea," 
and was decorated with the Turkish order of Medjidie. He 
married Caroline, daughter of Colonel Slater of the 82d 

John Hume, eighth son of David Hume of Castlemains 
was born 5th February 1811. Settling in Ceylon, he married 
Mary Anne, daughter of William Patton of Devonshaw, 
captain, 12th Lancers, with issue, three sons and one daughter. 
Stevenson Hume, ninth son, born 3d March 1815, is princi- 
pal of the treasury branch of H.M. Customs. He married 
Janet Eanken, daughter of Alexander Bartholomew, and 


granddaughter of Andrew Bartholomew of Crossflats, Lin- 
lithgowshire. Of this marriage survive three sons, David 
Alexander, Jonathan Eanken, and Thomas David ; also two 
daughters, Barbara' Clapperton, and Eliza Martin. The eldest 
son, David Alexander Hume, is a merchant in the East India 
trade, resident in London. 

Alison, eldest daughter of David Hume of Castlemains, by 
his wife Elizabeth Martin, was born 6th June 1790. She 
married William Miller of Edinburgh, and died without issue. 
Ann, second daughter, born 5th January 1792, married, 25th 
July 1816, Alexander Clapperton, merchant, Edinburgh, by 
whom she had three sons and nine daughters. John Clapper- 
ton, the eldest son, is partner of the firm of J. Clapperton & Co., 
merchants, Edinburgh. A magistrate and deputy-Heutenant 
of the county of Edinburgh, he, in 1873, held office as Master 
of the Merchant Company. Frances, third daughter, born 
16th March 1800, died unmarried. Elizabeth, fourth 
daughter, born 8th July 1805, was second wife of Alex- 
ander Bartholomew, by whom she had two sons and six 
daughters. Jane Welsh, fifth daughter, born 9th February 
1807, married Captain Barclay of Aberdeen, and died, leaving 
one son. 

Frances, second daughter of George Welsh of Burnfoot 
and Elizabeth Maxwell, married, in 1764, Thomas Macgill, a 
native of Dunbar, and latterly an extensive shipbuilder at 
Port- Glasgow. In early life, seriously impressed by the 
religious teaching of the Wesleyan Methodists, he attached 
himself to that body, and became remarkable for his religious 
earnestness. His wife was no less esteemed for her genuine 
piety; she died in August 1829 at the age of ninety. By his 
wife Frances Welsh, Thomas Macgill was father of two sons 


and two daughters. Stevenson, the elder son, born 19th 
January 1765, studied at the University of Glasgow. As a 
distinguished student he was, at the close of his college 
career, offered the Professorial Chair of Civil History in 
the University of St Andrews. Declining this preferment, 
he was, in 1791, ordained minister of Eastwood, Een- 
frewshire. In 1797 he was translated to the Tron Church, 
Glasgow, and in 1814 was preferred to the Professorship of 
Divinity in the University of that city. An accomplished 
theologian and expert teacher, he attracted to his prelections 
many young men who afterwards attained eminence in the 
Church. He co-operated with Mr "William M'Gavin, author 
of "The Protestant," in the movement which resulted in 
erecting a monument to John Knox in the Necropolis of 
Glasgow. Dr Stevenson Macgill died on the 18th August 
1840, at the age of seventy-six. Dean of the Chapel Eoyal 
and D.D. of Marischal College, Aberdeen, he published, 
among other works, "Lectures on Ehetoric and Criticism." 
A memoir of his life by Dr Eobert Burns of Paisley appeared 
in 1842, and a volume of his "Discourses" in 1844. He died 

Francis Macgill, younger son of Thomas Macgill and 
Frances Welsh, was born in 1792 ; he settled at Glasgow, 
where he died in 1865. He married, in 1810, Anne, daughter 
of John White, with issue, five sons and five daughters. 
Stevenson, the eldest son, a solicitor in Glasgow, is deceased ; 
George, second son, died in infancy ; Francis, third son, born 
in 1820, was, in 1843, ordained minister of the united 
parishes of Larbert and Dunipace, in the county of Stirling. 
An eloquent and acceptable expounder of Divine truth, and 
a faithful pastor, he died of fever in 1847. 


Jacob Wakefield Macgill, manufacturer, Glasgow, fourth 
son of Francis Macgill, married Agnes, fourth daughter of 
Eobert Boyd, Esq., Glasgow, with issue. Henry Moncrieff 
Macgill, fifth son, was, in 1865, ordained minister of Northesk, 
in the county of Edinburgh. He married Jane, daughter of 
Thomas White, merchant, Glasgow. 

Anne, eldest daughter of Francis Macgill, married the Eev. 
Thomas Marshall Postlethwaite, incumbent of Witherslack, 
Westmoreland, and is deceased; Frances, second daughter, 
died in childhood ; Agnes, third daughter, married the Eev. 
William Wotherspoon, minister of Kilspindie, and is 
deceased; Alice, fourth daughter, is deceased; Fanny, fifth 
and youngest daughter, is wife of the Eev. William Eobert- 
son, Stuartfield, Aberdeenshire. 

Jean, youngest daughter of George Welsh and Elizabeth 
Maxwell, married William Macgill, with issue a daughter, 
who married Captain William Martin, shipowner, Greenock. 
William Martin was born on the 28th August 1779, in 
the manse of Merton, Berwickshire. His father, Mr John 
Martin, minister of that parish, was a man of high culture 
and superior worth. In early life he was tutor to Sir John 
Sinclair, and when a boy Sir Walter Scott was much with 
him; he has in the introduction to the third canto of 
" Marmion," celebrated him in these lines : 

" The venerable priest, 
Our frequent ^nd familiar guest, 
Whose life and manners well could paiut 
Alike the student and the saint." 

Josias, eldest son of Walter Welsh of Lochquareit, died on 
the 15th October 1696 ; Alexander, the second son, succeeded 
to Lochquareit in June 1705, and died 11th July 1707.^ 
^ Tombstone inscription. 




Walter Welsh, third son of Walter Welsh and Helen 
Parkinson, succeeded his brother Alexander in the lands of 
Lochquareit. In August 1717-^ he married Isabel, daughter 
of Michael Anderson of Tushielaw, by whom he had a son, 
Walter. The marriage was dissolved by the Commissary 
Court in August 1733, when Mrs Welsh obtained a provision 
out of the Lochquareit estate. The estate was, in 1731, sold 
to James Dewar of Vogrie.^ 

By his second wife, Katherine Crookshank, Walter Welsh, 
first of Lochquareit, had a son, Mungo, who, on behalf of his 
mother, on the 16th January 1723, obtained sasine of the lands 
of Lochquareit for the annual rent of 16,000 merks, as a moiety 
of the value of his deceased father's property, acquired during 
his second marriage. Certain legal proceedings supervened.^ 

Mungo Welsh some time engaged in merchandise at Edin- 
burgh. In 1729 he emigrated to South Carolina, where he 
died prior to the 2d January 1735, when his sister Alison and 
her husband, Thomas Welsh of Burnfoot, succeeded to a 
portion of his movable estate.* 

Mr David Walker, minister of Temple, cousin, as is believed, 
of Walter Welsh of Lochquareit, had by his wife Margaret 
Paterson, four sons, David, Josias, Thomas, and Archibald ; 
also three daughters, Margaret, Anne, and Christian.^ 

David, the eldest son, probably died young ; his history is 
unknown. Josias, the second son, was baptized 11th January 
1695. Having graduated at the University of Edinburgh in 
1713, he was licensed to preach in 1720, and in 1721 was 
ordained minister of Abdie, Fifeshire. He died 17th May 

1 Contract of Marriage, dated 17tli August 1717, iu Lochquareit Charter- 

2 Lochquareit Writs. ^ ji^^ a jh^^ a p^sti Eccl. Scot., i. 308, 


1745. He married Margaret, eldest daughter of Sir Michael 
Balfour of Denmiln; she died at Cupar 8th July 1775, leaving 
a son, David.^ 

Archibald Walker, third son of Mr David Walker, minister 
of Temple, was licensed to preach in 1732, and was in 1738 
admitted minister of Temple in succession to his father. He 
died 29th January 1760. He married, 13th October 1741, 
Elizabeth, daughter of William Carlyle, merchant, Glasgow ; 
she died 23d February 1756, leaving issue.^ 

Thomas Walker, fourth and youngest son of Mr David 
Walker of Temple, graduated at the University of Edinburgh 
in 1723. Licensed to preach in 1727, he was in 1732 
ordained minister of Dundonald, Ayrshire. He published 
" Essays and Sermons," and " Vindication of the Discipline 
and Constitution of the Church of Scotland." He died 15th 
August 1780. By his first wife, Jean Eobertson, who died 
9th November 1747, he had three sons. He married, 
secondly, in 1749, Ann Shaw (died 14th October 1795), and 
by her had four sons and three daughters. Josias Walker, 
the youngest son, was Professor of Humanity in the 
University of Glasgow.^ One of the daughters, Margaret, 
became second wife of Mr William Grierson, minister of 
Glencairn. Her son, Thomas Grierson, minister of Kirkbean, 
who died 15th July 1854, published "Autumnal Eambles 
among the Scottish Mountains," and other works. He mar- 
ried his cousin Eussel, daughter of Professor Josias Walker 
of the University of Glasgow.^ 

Anne, second daughter of Mr David Walker, minister of 
Temple, married, 21st October 1720, ]\Ir James Wither- 

1 Fasti Eccl. Scot, ii. 468. 2 j^^i^ j 303. 

3 Ibid., ii. 113. -i Ibid., i. 585, 676. 


spoon, minister of Yester, Haddingtonshire. This respectable 
clergyman was descended from an old family, who owned the 
lands of Bridge House, Linlithgowshire. He was ordained 
minister of Yester in 1720, and there ministered till his 
death, 12th August 1759. He was Chaplain in Ordinary to 
the King, and was much revered for his piety and learning. 

Of the marriage of Mr James Witherspoon and Anne 
Walker were born four sons, John, David, Josias, and James; 
also a daughter, Susan.^ 

John Witherspoon, the eldest son, was born on the 5th 
February 1723. He graduated at the University of Edin- 
burgh 8th May 1739, and was licensed to preach 6th Sep- 
tember 1743. In April 1745 he was ordained minister of 
Beith, in the county of Ayr. During the Eebellion of that 
year he commanded a body of volunteers, but being made 
prisoner at the battle of Falkirk, he was, with others, im- 
prisoned in the castle of Doune. Having with his fellow- 
prisoners contrived to escape, he returned to his parish. In 
1757 he was translated to the Low Church, Paisley, where 
his ministerial zeal was highly appreciated. A keen debater 
in the Church Courts, he in the General Assembly upheld 
the views of the evangelical party in vigorous opposition to 
Principal Eobertson. In 1764 he received the degree of 
D.D. from the University of St Andrews. Having declined 
various offers of preferment in Scotland, he, in 1768, accepted 
the office of President of Princeton College, New Jersey. In 
this position he obtained increased celebrity and honour. On 
the rupture of the States with Great Britain in 1774, he was 
chosen by the citizens of New Jersey as a delegate to the 
Convention; and in 1776 was elected by them a Member of 

1 Fasti Eccl. Scot., i. 364, 365. 


Congress. Among his numerous occupations, he continued 
to preach, much to the comfort and improvement of his 
hearers. He closed a busy and eventful life on the 15th 
November 1794, at the age of seventy-two. His works were 
published at Edinburgh in 1804, in nine duodecimo volumes.^ 
A monument to his memory at Philadelphia was publicly 
inaugurated in October 1876. 

Dr Witherspoon married first, in 1748, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Eobert Montgomery of Craighouse, Ayrshire, and secondly, 
in 1791, Anne, widow of Dr Dill of New York ; of the 
first marriage were born three sons and two daughters. 
James, the eldest son, major in the United States Army, 
fell at the battle of Brandy wine, Pennsylvania, in September 
1777; he was unmarried. John, second son, an army 
surgeon, died without issue. David, third son, a doctor of 
medicine, married the widow of Abner Nash. Frances, the 
younger daughter, married Dr David Eamsay of North 
Carolina. Anne, elder daughter, married the Eev. Dr Stan- 
hope Smith, afterwards President of Princeton College, and 
by him had one son and three daughters. 

John W. Smith, only son of Dr Stanhope Smith and Anne 
Witherspoon, a judge at New Orleans, married, with issue a 
son and daughter. 

EHza, eldest daughter of Dr Stanhope Smith and Anne 

Witherspoon, married Pinfard, without issue. Frances, 

second daughter, married Provost, stepson of Aaron 

Burr, by whom she had two sons — James, of the United 
States Navy, who died without issue ; and Stanhope Smith ; 
also two daughters — Theodosia, who died unmarried, and 
Frances, who married the Eev. Breckenridge, with 

1 Fasti Ecd. Scot., ii. 160, 203, 204. 


issue — John C. Breckenridge, Vice-President of the Con- 
federate States.^ 

Susan, youngest daughter of Dr Stanhope Smith and Anne 
Witherspoon, married Derick Solomons, M.D., with issue, two 
daughters, Caroline and another, who married Woodhall. 

Susan Witherspoon, only daughter of Mr James Wither- 
spoon, minister of Yester, by his wife Anne Walker, became 
second wife of Mr James French, one of the masters of the 
High School of Edinburgh, a native of Tweedsmuir, in Tweed- 
dale. Mr James French was parochial schoolmaster first of 
Temple, afterwards of Yester. On the 14th February 1759, 
he was elected one of the masters of the High School of 
Edinburgh ; he resigned that office in June 1786, when he 
received, in acknowledgment of his services, a life pension in 
excess of his salary. He died at Carmunnock, Lanarkshire, 
on the 9th March 1789, at the age of seventy-four. Of the 
marriage of Mr James French and Susan Witherspoon were 
born a son, James, and a daughter, Anne. James French 
was, when a college student, tutor to Sir Walter Scott. 
Licensed to preach in 1785, he was in the following year 
ordained minister of Carmunnock, Lanarkshire. In 1791 he 
was translated to East Kilbride in the same county. He died 
in 1835, aged seventy-four.^ 

Anne French married Mr James Todd of New York, by 
whom she had a son, Alexander, who died young ; also three 
daughters — Susan, Mary, and Isabella. Susan married Gabriel 

Walker of Fifeshire; Mary married Squire of New York, 

with issue ; Isabella married John Bain of Morriston, in the 
county of Lanark ; she died 6th October 1857, leaving issue. 

1 Fasti Eccl. Scot., ii. 68, 204. 

' History of the High School of Edinburgh, by William Steven, D.D., 
Edinb. 1849, 12mo, p. 135, app. 92. 





From that branch of the family of Knox which, in the six- 
teenth century, settled in Berwickshire (p. 58), descended 
the ingenious poet, William Knox. He was born at Firth, 
in the parish of Lilliesleaf, Eoxburghshire, on the 17th 
August 1789. His father, Thomas Knox, espoused Barbara 
Turnbull, widow of Mr Pott of Todrig, in Selkirkshire. Of 
this marriage William was the eldest son. Having been 
educated at the grammar school of Musselburgh, he, in 1812, 
rented the farm of Wrae, near Langholm ; but, after five 
years, he abandoned his lease, and returned to his parents' 
house. In 1820 his family removed to Edinburgh, when 
he became a contributor to the public journals. In 
1818 he published "The Lonely Hearth and other Poems," 
12mo; in 1824, "The Songs of Israel," 12mo; and in April 
1825, a volume of lyrics entitled "The Harp of Zion." 
This last work brought him no inconsiderable reputation. 
His poetical merits were acknowledged by Sir Walter Scott, 
Eobert Southey, and Professor Wilson. After a period of 
weak health he died on the 12th November 1825, at the age 
of thirty-six. 

His poetry, always smooth and harmonious, is pervaded 
with deep pathos and pious sentiment. His Scriptural para- 


phrases are exquisite specimens of sacred verse. In 1847 a 
collected edition of his works was published at London. 



From that branch of the family which settled at Newbattle" 
(p. 57) sprung John Knox, projector and author. A book- 
seller in the Strand, London, he made a tour to the Scottish 
Highlands in 1764, where, remarking the impoverished con- 
dition of the people, he made a careful examination of the 
country, with . the view of suggesting a remedy. He after- 
wards proposed that fishing stations should be established 
on the west coast ; and he inaugurated that movement which 
resulted in the construction of the Crinan Canal. Among 
numerous letters and pamphlets, chiefly in reference to the 
condition of the Highlands, he published, in two octavo 
volumes, "A View of the British Empire, more especially 
Scotland, with some Proposals for the Improvement of that 
Country, the Extension of its Fisheries, and the Relief of 
the People," London, 1784; "Northern Fisheries," 1786, 
8vo ; and " A Tour through the Highlands of Scotland and 
Hebrides Isles in 1786," 8vo, 1787. Mr Knox also issued a 
work on the picturesque scenery of Scotland. He died at 
Dalkeith on the 1st August 1790. 



Descended from that branch of the House of Knox which 
settled in Berwickshire, William Knox, parish school- 
master of Edrom, married Agnes, daughter and co-heiress of 


Peter Mitchell, Esq. of Fannyhill, Perthshire. Of this 
marriage was born Peter Mitchell Knox, who, after prosecut- 
ing theological studies at the University of Edinburgh, 
declined entering the Church from some conscientious 
scruples. In 1836 he married Margaret, eldest daughter of 
William Craig, merchant in Aberdeen, by whom he had two 
sons. William Craig Knox, the elder son, was born in 
November 1837. John Knox, the second son, born January 
1839, became a merchant in London. He married, in 1866, 
his cousin Isa Craig, the gifted authoress of the Burns 
Centenary Prize Ode, and other poejus. 



Son of an English clergyman of Irish descent, Vicesimus 
Knox was born at Newington Green, Middlesex, in 1752. 
In his nineteenth year he obtained a fellowship in St John's 
College, Oxford. He published anonymously, in 1777, 
" Essays, Moral and Literary," and soon afterwards became 
widely known, while his work was translated into several 
European languages. In 1778 he was elected master of 
Tunbridge School, with wliich he held the united rectories of 
Eumwell and Eamsden Crays in Essex, and the chapelry 
of Shipbourne, Kent. His work on "Liberal Education," 
which appeared in 1781, gave offence owing to his remarks 
as to the relaxation of discipline in the universities, but his 
suggestions were ultimately carried out. His future works, 
entitled "Winter Evenings," "Personal Nobility," "The 
Spirit of Despotism," "Sermons on Faith, Hope, and 
Charity," and " Christian Philosophy," entirely sustained his 
early fame. Retiring from the mastership of Tunbridge School 
in 1812, he afterwards resided in London. He died on the 6th 
September 1821. A monument to his memory has been 


placed in Tunbridge Church. His works were, in 1824, col- 
lected and published in seven octavo volumes. 



At page 43, George Knox of Minnymore (otherwise Money- 
more), county Donegal, is named as father of two sons, 
Andrew and another. That other was George Knox, D.D., 
rector of the parish of Lifford, county Donegal. He died at 
Windsor in 1795. By his wife, Catherine, daughter of James 
Nesbit of Woodhill, county Donegal, he had four sons and 
three daughters. 

Mr James Knox, eldest son of George Knox, D.D., was for 
iLany years Principal of Foyle College, in the county of 
Derry; he died in 1848 at the age of ninety- five. He married 
his cousin Mary, daughter of George Nesbit of Woodhill, by 
whom he had a son, George Nesbit Knox, who, taking orders, 
became incumbent first at Termonamongan, afterwards at 
Balteagh, in the county of Derry. He married, but died 
without issue. Mr James Knox had also three daughters, of 
whom two, Marcia and Eliza, survive, unmarried. 

Mr John Eussell Knox, second son of Dr George Knox, 
was rector of Inismagrath, in the county of Leitrim ; he died 
on the 23d December 1830. By his wife, the eldest daughter 
of Dr Edward Hill, Professor of Medicine in Trinity College, 
Dublin, and of Clonmel, county Tipperary, he had two sons 
and two daughters. George, the elder son, served in the 
Medical Department of the East India Company; he was 
promoted as a superintending surgeon; he died in 1848. 
He married Mary Jane Stuart, only child of Major W. Stuart 
Griffiths, by whom he had three sons, also a daughter who 
died young. 

William, eldest son of George Knox, lieutenant in the 


64th Eegiment, served in the Persian campaign, and in sup- 
pressing the Indian Mutiny; he died unmarried. George, 
second son, was an engineer in the Bengal Civil Service, and 
is now Deputy-Commissioner of Eawul Pindi. James served 
with the 19th Eegiment in the Crimea, and in suppressing 
the Indian Mutiny ; he is major in the Cheshire Militia, and 
governor of H.M. prison at Gloucester. He married, in 
1863, Janet Elizabeth, daughter of C. Eoss, Esq., and has 
surviving issue — James Stuart, William Stuart Grifiiths, 
George Stuart, Charles Stuart, and Marcia Stuart. 

James Knox, younger son of Mr John Eussell Knox, was a 

captain in the 6th Madras Cavalry. With his wife, 

Morsom, and their infant son, he was lost at sea in the 
" Lady Monro," near the island of Desolation, in the Indian 

Catherine, elder daughter of Mr John Eussell Knox, 
married Major James Gibson of the 19th Infantry, with issue 
four sons and one daughter. Major Gibson died in Tasmania 
in 1842. 

Elizabeth Sinclair, younger daughter of Mr John Eussell 
Knox, married, first, Lieutenant A. Campbell, and secondly. 
Captain M. Fenton of the 13th Light Infantry, who latterly 
obtained an estate near Hobart Town in Tasmania. 

Major George Knox and Captain Tomkins Knox, third and 
fourth sons of George Knox, D.D., were officers in the Bom- 
bay Artillery. The former died at sea on his passage to 
England, about the year 1807 ; the latter was present at the 
siege of Seringapatam in 1799, and died in the island of 
Ceylon soon afterwards. Both were unmarried. 

Catherine Letitia, third and youngest daughter of George 
Knox, D.D., rector of Lifford, married, 5th May 1797, Lieu- 
tenant Edward Alexander Lawrence, by whom she had John 
Laird Mair, afterwards Baron Lawrence, and other issue. 




Adam Knox, born in the province of Ulster in 1719, emi- 
grated to America in 1737, accompanied by his two younger 
brothers. He settled at Boston ; one of the brothers, William, 
accepting employment at New Glasgow, now called Blandford, 
in Western Massachusetts. Adam and William Knox were 
both married. Their descendants are numerous throughout 
the States. 

Thomas W. Knox of New York has published " Camp Fire 
and Cotton Field," 1865, 8vo; "Overland through Asia," 
1870, 8vo; and "Underground; or, Life below the Surface," 
1873, 8vo. 


Aberdeen, 7, 144, 147, 159. 

Adamson, John, 136. 

Alan, Steward of Scotland, 8. 

Alan, "Walter, 8. 

Albany, Duke of, 114. 

Alchenour, Thome, 132. 

Aldhus, Johannes de, 5. 

Alexander II., 7. 

Alexander III., 8. 

Alexander, Henry, 32. 

Alexander, Louisa Juliana, 32. 

Allan, Barbara Anne, 156. 

Allan, David, 156. 

Allan, Shirley, 156. 

Altrie, Baron, 7. 

Anderson, Isabel, 162. 

Anderson, Michael, 162. 

Anglesea, Arthur, Earl of, 34, 38. 

Angus, Archibald, Earl of, 71. 

Anketell, Edith Maud, 29. 

Anketell, William, 29. 

Annand, Dean John, 80. 

Annesley, Dorothy, 34, 35. 

Annesley, Maurice, 34, 38. 

Antrim, 46, 149. 

Argyle, Countess of. 111. 

Argyle, Earl of, 93, 97, 101, 102, 111. 

Armagh, 28, 29, 32, 35. 

Armstrong, James, 51. 

Arran, Arthur, Earl of, 35, 36, 61, 

103, 104. 
Arran, Governor, 78, 93. 
Aske, Elizabeth, 89. 
Aske, Roger, 90. 
Ayr, 6, 54, 102, 144-147, 150. 

Bain, John, 166. 

Balfour, Margaret, 163. 

Balfour, Sir Michael, 163. 

Ballywillan, 47. 

Balnavis, Henry, 79. 

Balteagh, 170. 

Bannatyne, Richard, 122, 124, 137. 

Barclay, Agnes, 55, 56. 

Barclay, Captain, 159. 

Barclay, Hew, 11. 

Barclay, Jane Welsh, 159. 

Barclay, Rev. Dr, 74. 

Barker, Selina Elizabeth, 27. 

Barker, William Ponsonby, 27. 

Barklie, Archibald, 49. 

Barklie, Frances Jane, 49. 

Barklie, George, 49. 

Barklie, Hester, 49. 

Barklie, John Knox, 49. 

Barklie, Mary, 49. 

Barklie, Thomas, 49. 

Bartholomew, Alexander, 158, 159. 

Bartholomew, Andrew, 159. 

Bartholomew, Elizabeth, 159. 

Bartholomew, Janet, 158. 

Bath, Charlotte, 29. 

Bath, Thomas, 29. 

Beamish, Frances Emily, 27. 

Beamish, Percy Smyth, 27. 

Beaton, Cardinal, 78, 79, 97. 

Bell, Mary, 34. 

Bell, Thomas, 34. 

Belleek, 35. 

Belleek Manor, 37, 41. 

Bennet, Robert, 131, 132. 

Bent, Ellis, 28, 29. 

Bent, Eliza, 28. 

Bent, Hannah, 28. 

Bent, Isabella Hannah, 29. 

Bent, Robert, M.P., 28. 

Beresford, Clara, 25. 

Beresford, John, Right Hon., 25. 

Berwick, 82, 85, 89, 90, 93, 103, 104. 

Bethune, Captain, 42. 

Bethune of Blebo, 65. 

Betoun, Jonet, 131, 132. 

Bevington, Geoffrey, 49. 

Bevington, James Buckingham, 49. 

Bevington, Mary, 49. 

Bevington, Samuel Bourne, 49. 

Bishop, Thomas, 60. 

Blackader, Rev. John, 152. 

Blacker, Katherine, 26. 

Blacker, Latham, 26. 

Blair, Elizabeth, 16. 

Blair, John, of that Ilk, 16. 

Blair, Robert, 15, 148, 149. 

Blake, Elizabeth, 31. 

Blake, Rev. W,, 31. 

Blunden, Eliza, 42. 

Blunden, Frances Maria, 42. 

Blunden, Sir John, 42. 

Blunden, W. P., 42. 

Bonner, Bishop, 81. 

Borthwick, Martha, 68. 

Boswall, Johnne, 131. 

Boswall, William, 131. 

Bothwell Bridge, 151. 




Both well, Earl of, 59, 117, 118. 

Bowden, 63, 64, 71. 

Bowes, Elizabeth, 89, 95. 

Bowes, George, 89, 90. 

Bowes, Marjory, 90, 91, 137. 

Bowes, Mary Eleanor, 90. 

Bowes, Mrs, 61, 88, 90, 91, 93, 94, 107. 

Bowes, Richard, 89, 90. 

Bowes, Sir Ralph, 89. 

Bowes, Sir Robert, 89, 90. 

Bows, Marjorie, 135. 

Bows, Randulphe, 135. 

Bows, Robert, 135. 

Boyd, Agnes, 161. 

Boyd, John, 26. 

Boyd, Lord, 102. 

Boyd, Mary, 47. 

Boyd, Mary Louisa, 26. 

Boyd, Robert, 161. 

Boyd, Robert, of Trochrig, 148. 

Brabazon, Lady Mary, 39. 

Brandling, Sir Robert, 87, 88. 

Breckenridge, C. John, 166. 

Breckenridge, Frances, 165. 

Breckenridge, Rev. , 165. 

Bristol, Earl of, 47. 

Brown, Catherine, 57. 

Brown, James, 57. 

Bruce, Agnes, 74. 

Bruce, King Robert the, 17. 

Buntiue, John, 11. 

Buutine, William, 11. 

Burdett, Captain George, R.N., 27. 

Burdett, Frances Elizabeth, 27. 

Burnfoot, 154, 155, 159, 162. 

Burns, Dr Robert, 160. 

Burr, Aaron, 165. 

Bushfield, 36, 38. 

Buss, farm of, 58. 

Byron, Lord, 50. 

Caithness, Earl of, 116, 
Calbrathis, Thomas, 9. 
Calderwood, Jane, 73. 
Calvin, John, 91, 92, 95-97, 107, 113, 

Campbell, Elizabeth Sinclair, l7l. 
Campbell, General Sir Henry, 24. 
Campbell, Lieut. A., 171. 
Campbell of Kilzeancleuch, 94, 124. 
Campbell, Robert, 69, 136. 
Garden, Richard M,, 37. 
Carey, Anne Ellen, 20. 
Carey, Emma Augusta, 26. 
Carey, James, 26, 
Carey, Rev. J., 26. 
Carlyle, Elizabeth, 163. 
Carlyle, William, 163. 

Carmichael, Alexander, 151. 

Carolina, South, 162. 

Carrickfergus, 149. 

Carrington, 63, 68. 

Cassilis, Earl of, 110, 116. 

Castlemains, 157-159. 

Castlerea, 34, 38-41. 

Castlereagh, Lord, 53. 

Cecil, Sir Robert, 86-88, 98, 103, 105, 

Chaloner, Richard, 42. 
Charles I., 74, 85. 
Charles IL, 34, 71, 73, 128. 
Chastelherault, Duke of, 104. 
Chaumer, John, 6. 
Cheape of Rossie, 66. 
Clapperton, Ann, 159. 
Clapperton, Barbara, 159. 
Clapperton, John, 159. 
Clapperton, J., & Co., 159. 
Clark, Sir Simon, 51. 
Clinton, Mary Fynes, 49. 
Cnok, Johanne de, 5. 
Cochrane, Lord, 17. 
Cockburn, Alexander, 79. 
Cockburn, John, 79. 
Cockpen, 62, 64, 65, 68. 
Colingtoun, Lady, 131, 132. 
Copland, Patrick, 147. 
Coventre, Patrick, 9. 
Coverdale, Miles, 138. 
Cowtis, Helene, 131. 
Cox, Dr, 92. 
Craig, Isa, 169. 
Craig, Mr John, 110. 
Craig, Margaret, 169. 
Craig, William, 169. 
Craigyns (Craigends), 9. 
Cranmer, Archbishop, 82, 84, 85, 88. 
Cranstoun, Lords, 64. 
Craunstoun, Johnne, 131. 
Craufurd, George, 6. 
Craven, Earl of, 65. 
Crawford, Bethia, 68. 
Crawford, Elizabeth, 
Crawford, Helen, 20. 
Crawford, John Knox, 68. 
Crawford, Margaret, 20, 68. 
Crawford, Rev. David, 68. 
Crawford, Thomas, 20. 
Crawford, William, 20, 68. 
Crawfurd, George, 7, 18, 21, 23, 33. 
Croft, Sir James, 103. 
Crookshank, Alexander, 154. 
Crookshank, Katherine, 154, 162. 
Crossraguel, Abbot of, 110. 
Cumyn, William, 7. 
Cuuinghame, Alexander, 11. 



Cuninghame, William, 11. 
Cuiiningliain, Daniel, 16. 
Cunningham, John, 14. 
Cunningham, Marion, 17. 
Cunningham, William, ofCraigends, 17. 
Cunyngame, William, 6. 

Dalgleish, Jean, 73. 

Daly, Denis, Right Hon., 41. 

Daniell, Agnes Henrietta Sarah, 33. 

Daniell, Nugent M. W., 33. 

Darnley, Lord, 114-118, 122. 

Davidson, Isabella, 65. 

Davidson, John, 75. 

Dickie, Margaret, 56. 

Dill, Anne, 165. 

Dill, Dr, 165. 

Dillon, Helen, 45. 

Dillon, Redmond, 45. 

Dischingtoun, William, 132. 

Dewar, James, 162. 

Dobine, Gertrude, 26, 

Dobine, T., R.N., 26. 

Donegal, Earl of, 21. 

Donegal, Earls of, 21. 

Douglas, Countess of, 71. 

Douglas, Francis, 79. 

Douglas, George, 79. 

Douglas, Hugh, 78. 

Douglas, Isobel, 63. 

Douglas, John, 122. 

Douglas, Walter, 97. 

Dowglas, Robert, 131, 132. 

Down, Bishop of, 148. 

Dudley, John, 86. 

Dumbreck, Catherine, 157. 

Dumbreck, Sir David, 157. 

Dumbreck, William, 157. 

Dunbar, Alexander, 6. 

Dunbar, 66, 102, 159. 

Duncan, Alexander, 65. 

Duncan, Andrew, 65. 

Duncan, Ann Calderwood Durham, 66. 

Duncan, Catherine, 66. 

Duncan, Elizabeth, 66. 

Duncan, Henrietta, 66. 

Duncan, Henry Francis, 66. 

Duncan, Janet, 66. 

Duncan, John, 65. 

Duncan, Margaret, 66. 

Dundas, Emily Louisa Diana, 32. 

Dundas, Robert, 32. 

Dundrennan, Abbey of, 118. 

Dungannon, 20, 2l", 23, 24, 32, 34. 

Dunlop, James, of that Ilk, 19. 

Dunlop, Margaret, 19. 

Dunsandle, Lord, 41. 

Dunville, Anne Georgiua, 29, 

Dunville, William, 29. 
Durham, Dean of, 93, 137. 
Durie, George, 106. 

Echlin, Andrew, 23. 

Echlin, Bishop, 148. 

Echlin, General, 22. 

Echlin, Hester, 23. 

Echlin, John, of Ardquin, 23. 

Echlin, Robert, 23. 

Echlin, William, 23. 

Edmestoun, Gilbert, 132. 

Edmestoun, Lady, 132. 

Edward VI., 83, 84, 92. 

Erskine, John, 93. 

Erskine, John, Lord, 93, 102. 

Erskine of Dun, 94, 96, 99, 100, 109, 111. 

Erskine, Sir Charles, 21. 

Ethingtoun, Adame, 130. 

Fairlie, Alexander, 140. 
Fairlie, Elspet, 140, 141. 
Fairlie, John, 140. 
Fairlie, Martha, 140. 
Fairlie, Nathaniel, 140. 
Fairlie, Robert, 140. 
Fairlie, William, 140. 
Faldonsyde, 139. 
Fenton, Captain M., 171. 
Fenton, Elizabeth Sinclair, 171. 
Ferguson, Sarah, 25. 
Ferguson, Sir A., 25. 
Fiddes, James, 130. 
Fiddes, William, 130. 
Findlater, Mary, 68. 
Fitzgibbon, Catherine Delia, 29. 
Fitzgibbon, Thomas Gibbon, 29. 
Fleeming, Janet, 9. 
Fleming, James, 140. 
Fleming, Janet, 141. 
Fleming, Jean, 141. 
Fleming, Margaret, 17. 
Fleming, Patrick, 17. 
Fleming, Robert, 10. 
Fleming, William, IL 
Fletcher, C. J., 40. 
Fletcher,^Helen, 40. 
Fletcher, James, 28. 
Fletcher, John C, 40. 
Forbes, Catherine, 141. 
Forbes, James, 141. 
Forbes, Janet, 141. 
Forbes, John, 144. 
Forde, Matthew, 23. 
Forman, George, 131. 
Fortescue, Harriet, 28. 
Fortescue, Thomas, 28. 
Fox, John, 97. 



French, Anne, 166. 
Frencli, James, 166. 
French, Susan, 166. 
Frenil, B., 26. 
Frend, Mary Isabella, 26. 

Galway, Honoria, 46. 

Gahvay, Eev. Charles, 46. 

Gardiner, Charlotte Emily, 40. 

Gardiner, Major, 40. 

Garrett, Margaret Clarissa, 25. 

Garrett, Rev. James P., 25. 

Gavin, Bethia James, 68. 

Gisborne, Catherine, 24. 

Gisborue, General, 24. 

Gisborne, Thomas, 24. 

Glamis, Lord, 18. 

Glammis, Earl of, 90. 

Glen, Robert, 130. 

Glencairn, Earl of, 94, 95, 99, 102. 

Glencairn, James, Earl of, 14, 60. 

Glenny, Hopewell, 67. 

Glenny, Maria, 67. 

Gibson, Catherine, 171. 

Gibson-Craig, Bart., Right Hon. Sir 

William, 53. 
Gibson, Major James, 171. 
Gillaume, Thomas, 78. 
GoflF, Adelaide Henrietta, 32. 
Goff, Joseph, 32. 
Goodman, Christopher, 95, 102, 107, 

Gordon, Jane, 50. 
Gordon, Sir Willoughby, 50. 
Gore, Annesley, 35. 
Gore, Arthur William, 37. 
Gore, Charles James Knox, 37. 
Gore, Harriette Emily, 37. 
Gore, James Knox, 36, 40, 41. 
Gore, Lady Maria Louisa, 36. 
Gore, Mary, 35-38. 
Gore, Sir Francis A. Knox, 41. 
Graham, Daniel, 35. 
Graham, John, of Claverhouse, 1 50. 
Graham, Sarah, 35. 
Greenfield, Dr Andrew, 51. 
Greenfield, Letitia, 51, 52. 
Greenlees, Margaret, 18-20. 
Greer, Agnes Isabella, 30. 
Greer, Colonel Henry H., C.B., 30. 
Gricr, Marion, 143. 
Grierson, Thomas, 163. 
Grierson, William, 163. 
Griffiths, Major Stuart W., 170. 
Griffiths, Mary Jane Stuart, 170. 
Gulanis, Johnne, 130. 


Haddington, Earl of, 77, 122. 

Haldane, Margaret, 131. 

Haliburton, Elizabeth, 64, 65. 

Haliburton, John, 62. 

Hall, Janet, 54. 

Hallifax, Octavia Gertrude, 40. 

Hallifax, Rev. R. J. , 40. 

Hallifax, Samuel, 40. 

Halyburton, Lord, 139. 

Halyburton, Margaret, 139. 

Hamilton, Archbishop, 98, 99, 11 1,11 9. 

Hamilton, Archibald, 75. 

Hamilton, Christian, 20. 

Hamilton, Duke of, 19. 

Hamilton, Elizabeth, 19. 

Hamilton, Gavin, 19. 

Hamilton, John, 14, 80. 

Hamilton, Lady, 77. 

Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, 119. 

Hamilton, Patrick, 16. 

Handy, Jane, 38. 

Handy, Samuel, 38. 

Hardacre, George, 30. 

Hardacre, ]\Iary Anne, 30. 

Hartland, Lord, 45. 

Hay, Agnes Mary, 29. 

Hay, Captain, 46. 

Hay, Jane, 46. 

Hay, John, 12. 

Hay, John, of Inchknock, 20. 

Hay, Lieut. -Colonel, 29. 

Henderson, Jane, 48. 

Henderson, William, 48. 

Hepburn, Isobel, 73. 

Hepburn, Robert, 73, 130. 

Hesketh, Sir Thomas, 29. 

Hezlet, Anna Arabella, 49. 

Hezlet, Elizabeth, 49. 

Hezlet, John, 49. 

Hezlet, Mary, 49. 

Hezlet, Richard Jackson, 49. 

Hezlet, Robert, 49. 

Hill, David, 131, 132. 

Hill, Dr Edward, 170. 

Hill, Johnne, 131. 

Holmes, Frances, 45. 

Holyrood, 35, 36, 61, 101, 108, 111, 

112, 115, 116. 
Home, Alexander, Lord, 75. 
Home, Elizabeth, 77. 
Homill, Janet, 54. 
Home, Andrew Duncan, 67. 
Home, Charlotte, 68. 
Home, Elizabeth, 67. 
Home, Hopewell, 67. 
Home, Isaac William, 67. 
Home, James, 67. 
Home, John, 67. 



Home, Margaret, 68, 

Home, Maria Gleuny, 67. 

Home, Mary Fiudlater, 68. 

Home, Patrick Carnegie, 67. 

Home, "William, 67. 

Horner, Marian Diana, 24. 

Horner, Rev. Richard Nugent, 24. 

Houston, Sir Peter, 10. 

Howe, Peter, 52. 

Hume, Alexander, 157, 159. 

Hume, Alison, 159. 

Hume, Ann, 159. 

Hume, Barbara Clajiperton, 159. 

Hume, Captain David Edward, 158. 

Hume, Caroline, 158. 

Hume, Catherine, 157. 

Hume, David, 157-159. 

Hume, David A., 159. 

Hume, Edward, 158. 

Hume, Eliza, 158. 

Hume, Eliza Martin, 159. 

Hume, Elizabeth, 157-159. 

Hume, Frances, 159. 

Hume, George, 157. 

Hume, Jane, 157. 

Hume, Jane Welsh, 159. 

Hume, Janet, 158. 

Hume, John, 157, 158. 

Hume, Jonathan Rankcn, 159. 

Hume, Marion, 158. 

Hume, Mary Anne, 158. 

Hume, Stevenson, 158. 

Hume, Thomas David, 158, 159. 

Hume, AVilliam, 157. 

Hunt, Colonel Arthur, 40. 

Himtly, Earl of, 109. 

Hynd, Edward, 155. 

Hynd, Helen, 155. 

Hynd, William, 155. 

Inglis, Isabella, 56. 

Irvine, Captain William, 40. 

Irvine, Maria, 40. 

James I., 85. 
James II., 8. 
James III., 8. 
James IV., 6. 

James VI., 65, 90, 118, 127. 
James VII., 21. 
Jebb, Dr John, 53, 54. 
Jenkins, Henry, 49. 
Jenkins, Mary, 49. 
Jenkins, Robert, 49. 
Jenkins, Sarah, 49. 
Johnston, Anna Maria, 46. 
Johnston, Charlotte, 68. 
Johnston, Eliza, 68. 

Johnston, Elizabeth, 68. 
Johnston, Rev. John, 68. 
Johnston, Robert, 46. 
Johnston, Sir xVrchibald, 140. 
Johnstoun, Dauid, 132. 
Johnstoun, John, 136. 
Johnstoun, "Williame, 131. 

Keddie, Marion, 158. 

Keith, Elizabeth, 23. 

Keith, Hugh, 23, 51. 

Keith of Whiteriggs, 7. 

Keith, Robert, 7. 

Kelly, Cecilia, 48. 

Kelly, William, 48. 

Kennedy, Quentin, 110. 

Ker, Andrew, 139, 140. 

Ker, George, 75. 

Ker, Johnne, 131. 

Ker, James, 75, 77. 

Ker, John, 69, 140. 

Ker, Marion, 75. 

Ker, Nicolas, 75. 

Kilbirnie, 55, 56. 

Kilmahew Castle, 157. 

Kilmorey, Francis, Earl of, 31. 

King, Anne, 41. 

King, Isabella, Lady, 39. 

King, Right Hon. Sir Henry, 39. 

Kingsborough, Viscount Robert, 39. 

Kingston, Earl of, 39. 

Kirkaldy, Sir William, 120, 121, 123. 

Kitchin, Sir John, 10. 

Knapton, Lord, 24. 

Knoc, Alanus del, 5. 

Knoc, Johannes, de Ardmanwell, 9. 

Knoc, Wilelmus de, 5. 

Knock, John, 82. 

Knock, Robert, 5. 

Knok, Johne of, 9. 

Knok, Thomas, 17. 

Knok, William, 17. 

Knokis, Adam, 54. 

Knokis, Alanus de, 5. 

Knokis, Andrew, 45. 

Knokis, David, 54. 

Knokis, Janet, 54. 

Knokis, Johannes, 6. ' 

Knokis, William, 54, 57, 136. 

Knokkis, David, 57. 

Knokks, Adam de, 57. 

Knox, Ada Eliza, 29. 

Knox, Adam, 7, 56, 58, 172. 

Knox, Adelaide Henrietta L. H., 32. 

Knox, Admiral Edmond, 30, 31. 

Knox, Admiral E. S. P., 27. 

Knox, Agnes, 55, 58, 69, 168. 

Knox, Agnes Frances Nina, 41. 



Knox, Agnes Henrietta S., 33. 
Knox, Agnes Isabella, 30. 
Knox, Agnes Mary, 29. 
Knox, Alberic Edward, 41. 
Knox, Albert Frederick, 38. 
Knox, Albert Henry, 38, 41. 
Knox, Alexander, 15, 18, 46, 51-53, 57. 
Knox, Alexander Andrew, 51, 52. 
Knox, Alexander Cecil Rogers, 52. 
Knox, Alexandrina Henrietta Wilhel- 

mina, 31. 
Knox, Alfred Charles, 40. 
Knox, Alfred Douglas, 38. 
Knox, Alfred William, 41. 
Knox, Alice, 40, 49. 
Knox, Alice Elizabeth, 31. 
Knox, Alice Hewitt Caroline, 42. 
Knox, Alison, Q6. 
Knox, Andrew, 6, 11-14, 43, 44, 46, 

62, 64, 148, 170. 
Knox, Andrew Ferguson, 25, 26. 
Knox, Andrew, of that Ilk, 7, 58. 
Knox, Ann C, 36. 
Knox, Ann Wall, 48. 
Knox, Anna, 63. 
Knox, Anna Charlotte, 29. 
Knox, Anna Maria, 41, 46. 
Knox, Anne, 27, 30, 39, 47. 
Knox, Aune Elizabeth, 27. 
Knox, Anne Ellen, 26. 
Knox, Anne Georgina, 29. 
Knox, Anne Louisa, 27. 
Knox, Anne Maple, 45. 
Knox, Annesley, 36, 37. 
Knox, Annesley Arthur, 36. 
Knox, Annesle)'- Gore, 35-38. 
Knox, Archdeacon Charles, 28. 
Knox, Arthur, 34, 36, 38, 39, 41, 49. 
Knox, Arthur Edward, 39. 
Knox, Arthur Edward Ellis, 31. 
Knox, Arthur Henry, 40. 
Knox, Aston, 50. 
Knox, Barbara, 38, 167. 
Knox, Barbara Anne, 25. 
Knox, Beatrice, 57. 
Knox, Benjamina, 46. 
Knox, Bernard Henry, 25. 
Knox, Bessie, 54, 58. 
Knox, Bishop Robert" Bent, 28. 
Knox, Bishop William, 25, 26. 
Knox, Brownlow, 24. 
Knox, Captain Tomkins, 171. 
Knox, Caroline, 25, 46, 49. 
Knox, Catherine, 24, 42, 57, 58, 170, 

Knox, Catherine Anne, 42. 
Knox, Catherine Delia, 29, 30. 
Knox, Catherine Isabella Florence, 27. 

Knox, Catherine Letitia, 171. 

Knox, Cecil, 49. 

Knox, Cecilia, 48. 

Knox, Charles, 24, 28, 52. 

Knox, Charles Arthur Northland, 28. 

Knox, Charles Edmond, 29. 

Knox, Charles George, 29. 

Knox, Charles Henry, 26. 

Knox, Charles Jeffrey, 28. 

Knox, Charles John Beresford, 25, 

Knox, Charles Nesbett, 37. 

Knox, Charles Stuart, 171. 

Knox, Charles William, 42. 

Knox, Charles William Cuff, 53. 

Knox, Charlotte, 29, 31, 67, 73. 

Knox, Charlotte Emily, 40. 

Knox, Charlotte Esther, 26. 

Knox, Cheney John Maunsell, 28. 

Knox, Christian, 54, 63, 64, 66. 

Knox, Christina, 25. 

Knox, Clara, 25, 49. 

Knox, Clara Charlotte, 40. 

Knox, Clara Elizabeth, 25. 

Knox, Constance Louisa, 38. 

Knox, Cuff Howe Charles, 52. 

Knox, David, 57, Q6, 73. 

Knox, David, of Auchorthly, 6. 

Knox, Dawson Thomas, 28. 

Knox, Diana Jane, 30. 

Knox, Dominick, 46. 

Knox, Dorothea, 35. 

Knox, Dorothy, 34, 35, 154, 170. 

Knox, Edith Kathleen, 38. 

Knox, Edith Katherine Mary, 29. 

Knox, Edith Maud, 29. 

Knox, Edmond Sexton Pery, 30. 

Knox, Edmund, 24, 29. 

Knox, Edmund Dalrymple, 29. 

Knox, Edward, 31, 41. 

Knox, Edward Chaloner, 42. 

Knox, Edward William John, 40. 

Knox, Eleanor, 36. 

Knox, Eleanor Anne, 41, 42. 

Knox, Ellinor, 35. 

Knox, Eliza, 42, 170. 

Knox, Elizabeth, 14, 23, 36, 45, 49, 

57, 68, 62, 64, 66-69, 129, 135, 137, 

142, 147, 148, 152. 
Knox, Elizabeth Georgina, 28. 
Knox, Elizabeth Henrietta, 32. 
Knox, Elizabeth Jane, 27, 31. 
Knox, Elizabeth Sinclair, 171. 
Knox, Eliza Winckworth, 28. 
Knox, Ellis Henry, 28. 
Knox, Emily Adela, 41. 
Knox, Emily Annie, 26. 
Knox, Emily Elizabeth, 28. 
Knox, Emily Jane, 28. 




Emily Lavinia, 27. 
Emily Louisa Diana, 32. 
Emily Mabel, 38. 
Emma Augusta, 26. 
Ernest Adolphus, 42. 
Ernest Henry, 38. 
Eustace Clialoner, 42. 
Evelyn Katherine Isabel, 29. 
Faniiy, 25, 30. 
Flora Sophia Ann, 32. 
Florence Isabel, 38. 
Florence May, 32. 
Frances, 30, 45. 
Frances Elizabeth, 27. 
Frances Emily, 26. 
Frances Emma, 26. 
Frances Harriet, 25. 
Frances Leticia, 27. 
Frances Maria, 42. 
Frances Mary Winifred, 28. 
Francis, 34-38, 41, 42. 
Francis Arthur, 37, 73. 
Francis Robert Bonliam, 42. 
Francis William, 36. 
Francis William White, 45. 
Frederick Charles, 31. 
Frederick Edgar, 41. 
Geoffrey, 13. 

George, 7,9, 14,15, 24,26,27, 
45, 46, 51, 52, 56, 58, 6Q, 170. 
George Beresford, 25. 
George, D.D., 170, 171. 
George Edward, 37. 
George James, 27. 
George John, 29. 
George Nesbit, 170. 
George, of Ranfurlie, 7. 
George Stuart, 171. 
Georgina, 32, 51. 
Gertrude, 26. 
Gilbert, 58. 
Gilbert, of that Ilk, 6. 
Granville Henry, 38. 
Granville Henry John, 32. 
Granby Robert, 73. 
Guillaume, 60. 
Hannah, 28, 34, 38. 
Harriet, 28, 33, 49. 
Harriet Anne, 30. 
Harriette, 35, 36. 
Harry, 49. 

Helen, 16, 20, 40, 56, 63. 
Helen Adelaide, 27. 
Henrietta, 48. 
Henrietta Elizabeth, 52. 
Henrietta Mary Octavia, 27. 
Henry, 23, 24, 53, 63, 64, 66, 71. 
Henry Augustus, 36. 

Knox, Henry Barry, 27. 
Knox, Henry Needham, 31. 
Knox, Henry Torrens, 50. 
Knox, Henry William, 36-38. 
Knox, Hester, 23, 31, 49. 
Knox, Hew, 54. 
Knox, Hewissa, 10. 
Knox, Honoria, 43, 46. 
Knox, Horace Chaloner, 42. 
Knox, Hugh, 55, 56. 
Knox, Ida Mary, 49. 
Knox, Isabel Maud, 29. 
Knox, Isabella, 27, 28, 56, 65. 
Knox, Isabella Antoinette, 37. 
Knox, Isabella Frances, 25. 
Knox, Isabella Hannah, 29. 
Knox, Isabella Mary Cecil, 31. 
Knox, Isobel, 16, 57, 58, 63, 73. 
Knox, James, 14, 34-36, 41, 47, 55-58, 

62, 63, 67-69, 154, 170, 171. 
Knox, James Annesley, 36, 38. 
Knox, James Fitzroy, 38. 
Knox, James Knox Gore, 36. 
Knox, James Spencer, 25. 
Knox, James Stuart, I7l. 
Knox, Jane, 15, 26, 27, 37, 38, 45, 

46, 48-50, 58. 
Knox, Jane Harriet, 38, 41. 
Knox, Jane Kerr, 56. 
Knox, Janet, 10, 11, 18, 45, 54, 56-58, 63. 
Knox, Janet Elizabeth, 171. 
Knox, Jean, 18, 58, 64, 69, 73. 
Knox, Jesse Diana, 30. 
Knox, Joane, 69. 
Knox, Johannes de, 8. 
Knox, John, 10, 23, 24. 33-36, 38, 

40-42, 47, 48, 51, 52, 54-60, 62, 63, 

65-67, 69-73. 
Knox, John Alexander, 52. 
Knox, John Chichester, 28. 
Knox, John Ethelred, 42. 
Knox, John Frederick, 41. 
Knox, John Henry, 31. 
Knox, John James, 31. 
Knox, John, London, 168, 169. 
Knox, John, of Aberdeen, 7. 
Knox, John, of Ardmanwell, 9. 
Knox, John, of Silvieland, 17, 20. 
Knox, John, of that Ilk, 6, 7. 
Knox, John, portioner of Ranfurlie, 

Knox, John, projector, 168. 
Knox, John Russell, 170, 171. 
Knox, John Samuel, 48. 
Knox, John, the Reformer, 61, 69, 74- 

76, 78-120, 122, 124-128, 136-142, 

146, 153, 160. 
Knox, Johnne, 61, 129, 130, 132. 



Knox, Juliana Caroline Frances, 32. 

Knox, Katherine, 26, 

Knox, Kathleen, 29. 

Knox, Lady Jane, 40, 

Knox, Lady Louisa Catherine, 52. 

Knox, Lady Mary, 39, 46. 

Knox, Lawrence, 40. 

Knox, Letitia, 51, 52. 

Knox, Letitia Wray, 43, 

Knox, Lionel Stephen, 31. 

Knox, Lionel William, 38. 

Knox, Louisa, 26. 

Knox, Louise Juliana, 32. 

Knox, Lucy, 31. 

Knox, Lucy Diana, 30. 

Knox, Mabella Josephine, 31. 

Knox, Magdalen, 64, 

Knox, Major Ernest, 40. 

Knox, Major-General, 53. 

Knox, Major George, 171. 

Knox, Major George Uchter, 27. 

Knox, Marcia, 170. 

Knox, Marcia Stuart, 171, 

Knox, Marcus, 17-20, 33, 46. 

Knox, Margaret, 14, 15, 20, 54-57, 

63, 66, 67, 69, 129, 135, 139, 141, 

142, 169. 
Knox, Margaret Clarissa, 25. 
Knox, Margaret Stewart, 129. 
Knox, Maria, 40. 
Knox, Maria Anne, 39-41. 
Knox, Marian Diana, 24. 
Knox, Marion, 48, 
Knox, Marjory, 95, 107. 
Knox, Martha, 68, 129, 135, 137, 140. 
Knox, Mary, 34, 35, 38, 41, 46-49, 

66, 170. 
Knox, Mary Anne, 24, 30, 35, 43, 44. 
Knox, Mary Fynes Clinton, 49. 
Knox, Mary Gisborne, 29. 
Knox, Mary Isabella, 26. 
Knox, Mary Jane, 170. 
Knox, Mary Juliana, 32. 
Knox, Mary Letitia, 42. 
Knox, Mary Louisa, 26, 32. 
Knox, Mary Mina, 36, 38. 
Knox, Mary Stuart, 32. 
Knox, Maurice, 45, 46. 
Knox, Maurice Wilson, 45. 
Knox, Michael, 18, 56, 
Knox, Mina Eveline Anna, 38. 
Knox, Mrs Elizabeth, 23. 
Knox, Nathaniel, 60. 
Knox, Nathaniel Alexander, 48. 
Knox, Nicol, 62, 64. 
Knox, Nina Gwendaline, 38. 
Knox, Octavia Gertrude, 40. 
Knox, Octavius Newry, 31. 

Knox of Prehen, 43. 

Knox, Ouchtred, of the Craggans. 9. 

Knox, Patrick, 14, 15, 62, 65. 

Knox, Paul, 62, 69, 136. 

Knox, Peter, 10. 

Knox, Peter Mitchell, 169. 

Knox, Philippa Allen, 43. 

Knox, Rachel, 68. 

Knox, Rebecca, 49. 

Knox, Rev. Barry Henry, 31. 

Knox, Rev. Robert Dalzell, 52. 

Knox, Richard, 34, 42. 

Knox, Right Hon. George, 28. 

Knox, Robert, 14, 15, 18, 47, 48, 51, 

54-57, 63, 66, 68, 69, 73. 
Knox, Robert Augustus, 40. 
Knox, Robert Henry, 36. 
Knox, Robert John, 42, 43, 49. 
Knox, Robert John Shejfhngton, 29. 
Knox, Robert Kyle, 48, 
Knox, Robert Uchtred, 28. 
Knox, Robert William, 56. 
Knox, Ross, 36. 
Knox, Ross Mahon, 36. 
Knox, Samuel, 48. 
Knox, Sara, 48. 

Knox, Sarah, 25, 26, 35, 37, 48, 49, 73. 
Knox, Selina Elizabeth, 27. 
Knox, Simon, 62, 65. 
Knox, Sir John, 77. 
Knox, Skene, 73. 
Knox, St Clair Stuart, 73. 
Knox, St George Henr}', 36. 
Knox, Susan Euphemia, 31. 
Knox, Susanna, 15. 
Knox, Sydne)', 39, 48. 
Knox, Thomas, 14, 15, 18, 20-25, 27- 

30, 32, 45, 46, 49, 55, 56, 67, 73,167. 
Knox, Thomas Edmond, 30. 
Knox, Thomas Fortescue, 25. 
Knox, Thomas Francis, 31. 
Knox, Thomas George, 25. 
Knox, Thomas George Keith, 28. 
Knox, Thomas Granville, 32. 
Knox, Thomas Granville Henry Stuart, 

Knox, Thomas John, 25, 26, 29. 
Knox, Thomas Pery, 27. 
Knox, Thomas (Ranfurly), 33-35, 54. 
Knox, Thomas Vesey Melrith, 28. 
Knox, Uchred, 56, 
Knox, Uchreid, 15, 
Knox, Uchter, 9-11, 14, 16, 17. 
Knox, Uchter John Mark, 33. 
Knox, Uchtred, 7, 10, 14, 16. 
Knox, Uchtred, de Craigends, 8, 9. 
Knox, Utred Augustus, 41. 
Knox, Vesey, 24, 28. 



Knox, Yesey Thomas Edmund, 24. 

Knox, Vicesimus, 169. 

Knox, Victoria Anne, 40. 

Knox, Violet Mary, 32. 

Knox, Walls, 74. 

Knox, Walter Frederic, 42. 

Knox, W. & J., 55, 56. 

Knox, Welhy, 49. 

Knox, William, 7, 18-20, 23-26, 33- 

35, 38, 47, 55, 60-70, 75, 154, 168, 

170, 172. 
Knox, William Arthur Logan, 28, 
Knox, William Bevington, 48. 
Knox, William Craig, 169. 
Knox, William Ferguson, 26. 
Knox, William George, 31, 52. 
Knox, William James, 48. 
Knox, William, of Silvieland, 1 0, 1 4, 1 7. 
Knox, William, poet, 167. 
Knox, William Stuart, 32. 
Knox, William Stuart Griffiths, 171. 
Knox, W. Thomas, 172. 
Knox, Wright, 48-50. 
Knoxe, Jok of, 6. 
Knoxis, Eleazare, 135, 137-139. 
Knoxis, Nathanaell, 135, 137-139. 
Kyle, Mary, 48. 

Laidlaw, Mary, 66. 
Lambert, Colonel, 71. 
Lambert, Joseph, 38. 
Lamond, John, 8. 
Lant, Alexandrina H. W,, 31. 
Lant, Isabella E., 31. 
Lawrence, Baron, 43, 171. 
Lawrence, Colonel Alex., 43. 
LaAvrence, General Sir Heniy Mont- 
gomery, 43. 
Lawrence, William, 43. 
Lecky, James Orr, 49. 
Leet, Constance Mina, 38. 
Leet, Edward, 38. 
Lennox, Earl of, 114, 116, 120. 
Leslie, Agnes, 6, 
Leslie, Christina, 25. 
Leslie, Henry, 6, 148. 
Leslie, Kev. Edward, 25. 
Lindsay, David, 123. 
Lindsay, Sir Dayid, 79. 
Lindsell, Caroline, 49. 
Lindsell, Eobert, 49. 
Livingstone, Jean, 141. 
Livingstone, John, 149. 
Lochquareit, 153, 154, 161, 162. 
Loeffel, Benjamina, 46. 
Loefifel, Captain, 46. 
Logan, Elizabeth Georgina, 28. 
Logan, Emily Jane, 28. 

Logan, Rev. T. D., 28. 
Logan, Thomas Dawson, 28. 
Lome, Archibald, Lord, 93. 
Loudon, John, 151. 
Lumsden, James, 123. 
Lyle, Agnes, 9. 
Lyon, Archibald, 18, 19. 
Lyon, Donald, 19. 
Lyon, Isobel, 18, 19. 
Lyle, Lyle, 9. 

Macaulay, Sir Robert, 10. 

MacCausland, Dominick, 46. 

MacCausland, Mary, 46. 

Macgill, Agnes, 161. 

Macgill, Alice, 161. 

Macgill, Anne, 161. 

Macgill, Fanny, 161. 

Macgill, Francis, 159-161, 

Macgill, George, 160. 

Macgill, James, 132. 

Macgill, Moncrieff Henry, 161. 

Macgill, Stevenson, 160, 

Macgill, Thomas, 159, 160. 

Macgill, Wakefield Jacob, 161. 

Macgill,- William, 161, 

Mack, Isobel, 73, 

Mack, John, 73. 

Maclaren, Charles, 157. 

Maclaren, Jane, 157. 

Macnaughten, John, 43-45, 

M'Affee, Anne, 47, . 

M'Affee, William, 47, 

M'Causland, Fanny, 30. 

M'Causland, Rev. Marcus, 30. 

M 'Gavin, William, 160. 

M 'Master, Colonel, 42, 

M 'Master, Mary Letitia, 42, 

M'Pherson, Rev. Finlay, 68. 

Madden, Clara Elizabeth, 25, 

Madden, John, 25. 

Mahon, Jane, 45. 

Mahon, Sir Ross, 35. 

Mahon, Thomas, 45. 

Maitland, Robert, 137. 

Maitland of Lethington, 93, 104, 

113, 120. 
Malcolm, Andrew George, 67. 
Maling, Christopher Thomson, 156. 
Maling, Maliny, 156. 
Martin, Alexander, 157. 
Martin, Alison, 157. 
Martin, Elizabeth, 157, 159. 
Martin, John, 161. 
Mary of Lorraine, 93. 
Mary Queen of Scots, 107, 111, 119. 
Maunsell, Lucy Diana, 30. 
Maunsell, W. William, 30. 



Maxwell, Elizabeth, 157. 

Maxwell, George, 15, 17. 

Maxwell, Hector, 143. 

Maxwell, John, 10, 157. 

Maxwell, Margaret, 15-18, 143. 

Melville, James, 121. 

Menteith, Earl of, 102. 

Merchingstoun, William, 131, 132. 

Merschell, Nudry, 131. 

Merton, William, 161. 

!Mertyne, Helen, 131. 

Mill, Walter, 97, 98. 

Miller, Alison, 159. 

Miller, AVilliam, 159. 

Minnymore, 43, 170. 

Mitchell, Agnes, 168. 

Mitchell, Peter, 169. 

Monktoun, Litell, 131, 132. 

Montgomery, Elizabeth, 165. 

Montgomery, Lord, 116. 

Montgomery, Robert, 165. 

Moore, Colonel Roger, M.P., 34. 

Moore, Hannah, 34. 

Morton, Earl of, 116, 122, 123, 128. 

Moiitray, James, 23. 

Moutray, Hester, 23. 

Muir, Jane Kerr, 56. 

Miiir, Janet, 56. 

Muir, Robert, 16. 

Mure, Jean, 16. 

Mure, Sir William, 16. 

Murray, Earl of, 6,93,109,113,114,118. 

Murray, Sir John, 69. 

Musgrave, Countess of, 156. 

Napier, George, 157. 

Nash, Abner, 165. 

Nesbit, Catherine, 170. 

Nesbit, George, 170. 

Nesbit, James, 170. 

Nesbit, Mary, 170. 

Newbattle, 153-155, 167. 

Newton, Alice, 40. 

Norham Castle, 89, 90. 

Northland, Anne, Viscountess, 24, 25. 

Northland, Viscount, 24, 25. 

Northumberland, Duke of, 86-88. 

Norton, Captain, 148. 

Ochiltree, Lord, 102, 113. 
0' Grady, Eliza, 38. 
Oliphant, James, 130. 
O'Neill, Jesse Diana, 30. 
O'Neill, Rev. J. T., 30. 
Ormsby, Emily Lavinia, 27. 
Ormsby, General, R.A., 27. 

Palmer, Charity, 38. 

Palmer, Francis, 38. 

Palmer, Hannah, 38, 39. 

Palmer, Mary, 34, 38. 

Palmer, Roger, 34. 

Parkinson, Helen, 154, 155, 162. 

Parsons, Lady Jane, 40. 

Paterson, Margaret, 162. 

Patton, Eliza, 158. 

Patton, Mar}' Anne, 158. 

Patton, William, 158. 

Peel, John, 37. 

Pery, Diana Jane, 30. 

Pery, Edmond, Viscount, 30. 

Pintard, Eliza, 165. 

Pomeroy, Frances Leticia, 27. 

Pomeroy, Hon. and Rev. A. W., 27. 

Pont, Mrs Margaret, 142. 

Pont, Hobert, 141. 

Pont, Samuel, 142. 

Pont, Timothy, 141. 

Portarlington, Earl of, 28. 

Porterfield, John, 11, 1 44. 

Postlethwaite, Anne, 161. 

Postlethwaite, Thomas Marshall, 161. 

Prestoun, Archibald, 132. 

Prestoun, Richard, 131. 

Provost, Frances, 165. 

Provost, James, 165. 

Provost, Stanhope Smith, 165. 

Provost, Theodosia, 165. 

Purvis, Rev. David, 68. 

Quhitelaw, Alexander, 61. 

Ramsay, Dr David, 165. 

Ramsay, Frances, 165. 

Ranfurlie, 8, 10, 11, 17, 22, 43, 47, 

51 54. 
Ranfurly, Earl of, 30-32. 
Ranfurlj'', Mabella, Countess of, 31. 
Ranken, Janet, 158. 
Rannaldson, Sir John, 9. 
Reade, John Page, 32. 
Reade, Mary Stuart, 32. 
Reynolds, Dr P. F., 51. 
Riccio, David, 116, 117, 139. 
Rice, Lucy Spring, 31. 
Rice, Mary, 48. 
Rice, Robert, 48. 
Rice, the Hon. Spring S. E,, 31. 
Richards, Caroline, 46. 
Richardson, Isobel, 58. 
Richardson, Janet, 57. 
Rigg of Carberry, 62. 
Rimington, Harriet, 33. 
Rimington, James, 33. 
Robert II., 113. 
Robert, Duke of Albany, 113, 



Robertson, Jean, 163. 
Robertson, "William, 161. 
Rogers, Rev. "William J., 37. 
Rogers, Sarah, 73. 
Rooper, Bonfoy John, 32. 
Rooper, Georgina, 32. 
Roper, Isabella, 31. 
Ross, D. R., 30. 
Ross, Harriet Anne, 30. 
Rosse, Earl of, 40. 
Rothes, Conntess of, 152. 
Rothes, Earl of, 102, 151, 152. 
Rough, John, 79-81. 
Ruthven, Lord, 102, 110, 116. 
Rutledge, Dorothea, 35. 
Rutledge, Dorothy, 35. 
Rutledge, Peter, 35. 
Rutledge, Thomas, 35. 

Samuelston, 75, 77, 78. 

Sandilands, Sir James, 93. 

Schortes, Elizabeth, 58. 

Scott, Sir Walter, 161, 166, 167. 

Scott, Walter, 155. 

Sempell, Robert, 10. 

Semple, Barbara, 18. 

Semj)le, Janet, 11, 17. 

Semple, Lord, 10. 

Seton, Lord, 116. 

Seyton, Lord, 61. 

Sharp, Archbishop, 151. 

Shaw, Ann, 163. 

Shaw, Elizabeth, 67. 

Shaw, Rev. Thomas, 67. 

Simon, Barbara Anne, 156, 157. 

Sinclair, Bishop, 112. 

Sinclair, Marion, 75. 

Sinclair, Sir John, 161. 

Sinclair, William, 75. 

Six-Mile-Water, the, 148, 149. 

Slater, Caroline, 158. 

Slater, Colonel, 158. • 

Sligo, Marquis of, 52. 

Smith, Ann, 30. 

Smith, Colonel Henry, 30. 

Smith, Eliza Stanhope, 165. 

Smith, Frances Stanhope, 165. 

Smith, Rev. Stanhope, 165. 

Smith, Stanhope Anne, 165, 166. 

Smith, Susan Stanhope, 166. 

Smith, W. John, 165. 

Smyth, Duncan, 55. 

Smyth, Janet, 55. 

Smyth, Margaret, 55. 

Smyth, Marion, 55. 

Smyth, NicoU, 55. 

Smyth, Robert, 55. 

Solomons, Caroline, 166. 

Solomons, Derick, M.D., 166. 

Solomons, Susan, 166. 

Somner, Jane, 157. 

Somner, Richard, 157. 

Southey, Robert, 167. 

Spang, Andrew, 20. 

Spang, Elizabeth, 20, 23. 

Spang, William, 20. 

Spencer, Anne, 25. 

Spencer, James, 25. 

Spens, Margaret, 130. 

Squire, Mary, 166. 

St Andrews, 76-82, 99, 101, 102, 104, 

115, 121, 122. 
St George, Alice Caroline, 43. 
Staples, Anne, 27. 
Staples, Sir Thomas, Bart., 27. 
Stevenson, Barbara Anne, 25. 
Stevenson, John, 25. 
Stewart, George, 12. 
Stewart, Margaret, 113, 135-137, 139, 

Stirling, 99-102, 104, 111, 115, 118, 

122, 160. 
Strange, Colonel H. F., C.B., 27. 
Stuart, James, Lord, 93, 96, 101, 102, 

104, 108, 109. 
Stuart, Mary Jane, 170. 
Stuart, Most Rev. William, 32. 
Sturler, de, Henrietta Mary Octavia, 

Sutton, Miss, 24. 
Swyne, William, 131. 
Sympsoun, David, 132. 

Talbot of Grafton, 90. 

Taylor, Edward, 32. 

Templepatrick, 148, 149, 153, 154. 

Thomson, Thomas, 131. 

Tisdall, Isabella, 28. 

Tisdall, J., 28. 

Tod, George, 131. 

Todd, Alexander, 166. 

Todd, Anne, 166. 

Todd, Isabella, 166. 

Todd, James, 166. 

Todd, Mary, 166. 

Todd, Susan, 166. 

Tomkins, Andrew, 43. 

Tomkins, Honoria, 43. 

Trotter, Agnes Bruce, 74. 

Trotter, Charlotte, 73. 

Trotter, Colonel Robert Knox, 74. 

Trotter, St Clair Stuart, 73. 

Trotter, Thomas, 73. 

Trotter, William, 74. 

Truell, Frances Emily, 26. 

Truell, Vesey Robert, 26. 



Tullideph, Jean, 73. 
Tullidepb, Principal, 73. 
Tullideph, Rev. John, 73. 
Tunstall, Bishop of Durham, 82. 
Turnbull, Barbara, 167. 
Twigge, Captain, 48. 
Twigge, Sara, 48. 

Vaughan, ]\Iatthew, 39. 
Vaughan, Sydney, 39. 
Vere, Jane Hope, 30. 
Vere, William Hope, 30. 
Vernour, Williame, 131. 
Vesci, Viscount de, 24. 
Yesey, Hon. and Rev. Arthur, 27. 
Vesey, Jane, 27. 

Walker, Anne, 162, 163, 166. 

Walker, Ann Shaw, 163. 

Walker, Archibald, 162, 163. 

Walker, Christian, 162. 

Walker, Elizabeth, 163. 

Walker, David, 151, 153, 162, 163. 

Walker, Gabriel, 166. 

Walker, James, 151, 153. 

Walker, Jean, 163. 

Walker, Josias, 153, 162, 163. 

Walker, Juliana Caroline Frances, 32. 

Walker, Major, 48. 

Walker, Margaret, 162, 163. 

Walker, Marion, 48. 

Walker, Russel, 163. 

Walker, Sir Edward Forester, 32. 

Walker, Susan, 166. 

Walker, Thomas, 162, 163. 

Wall, Ann, 48. 

Wallace, William, 54. 

Walsh, J., 42. 

Walsh, IMary Letitia, 42, 

Ward, Mary Ann, 24. 

Ward, Rev. Bernard, 24. 

Waring, Henry, 23. 

Washington, General, 53. 

Watsoun, Robert, 136. 

Wauchope, Williame, 131. 

Wawaris, Andro, 9. 

Wedderburn, David, 147. 

Welles, Baron, 24. 

Welsh, Alexander, 155, 161, 162. 

Welsh, Alison, 155-157, 162. 

Welsh, Captain George, 149, 150. 

Welsh, Colonel, 156. 

Welsh, Cuthbert, 143. 

Welsh, David, 143, 156. 

Welsh, Dean Robert, 142. 

Welsh, Elizabeth, 142, 147, 148, 152, 

156, 161. 
Welsh, Frances, 157, 159. 

Welsh, George, 156, 157, 161. 

Welsh, Helen, 154, 155, 162. 

Welsh, Isabel, 162. 

Welsh, Jean, 157, 161. 

Welsh, John, 141, 144, 145, 147, 148, 

150, 152, 153. 
Welsh, Josias, 147-149, 154, 155, 161. 
Welsh, Katherine, 154, 162, 
Welsh, Tiouise, 147, 152. 
Welsh, Maliny, 156. 
Welsh, Margaret, 143, 146, 147. 
Welsh, Mariva, 143. 
Welsh, Mungo, 162. 
Welsh, Nathaniel, 147. 
Welsh, Nicolas, 142. 
Welsh, Shirley, 156, 
Welsh, Thomas, 143, 156, 157, 162. 
Welsh, AValter, 153-155, 161, 162. 
Welsh, Wmiam, 147, 153, 154, 
Wesley, John, 53. 
Weymis, Agnes, 129. 
Weston, Dr, 84. 
Wharton, Lord, 87. 
White, Anne, 160. 
White, Elizabeth, 45. 
White, Francis, 45. 
White, Jane, 161. 
White, John, 160. 
White, Thomas, 161. 
Whittingham Mains, 58. 
Whittingham, William, 93, 96, 137. 
Whynrahame, Robert, 131. 
Wiclif, Henry, 90. 
Wigram, Isabella, 27. 
Wigram, Octavius, 27. 
William, King, 64. 
Williams, Emma, 24. 
Williams, Thomas, 24. 
Willock, John, 93, 102, 103. 
Wilson, Anne Maple, 45. 
Wilson, James, 45. 
Winram, John, 80. 
Wishart, George, 78, 80, 96. 
Wishart of Pitarrow, 96, 
Withersj)oon, Anne, 164-166. 
Witherspoon, David, 164, 165. 
Witherspoon, Elizabeth, 165. 
AVitherspoon, Frances, 165. 
Witherspoon, James, 163-165. 
Witherspoon, John, 164, 165. 
Witherspoon, Josias, 164. 
Witherspoon, Susan, 164, 166. 
Woddrop, Margaret, 63. 
Wotherspoon, Rev. William, 161. 
Wray, Letitia, 43. 
Wricht, Adam, 131. 
Wright, Mary, 48. 
Wright, William, 48. 



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